трусики женские украина
The form and content of an advertising slogan - Advertising
In today's world, the problem of advertising is increasingly attracting the attention of specialists in various fields of knowledge, psychology, cultural studies, journalism, political science, economics, linguistics and other sciences. Advertising penetrated into all branches of human activity. The object of advertising are clothing, electronics, medicine, and other goods and a variety of services.
Advertising contributes to the development of the market. It responds to requests from advertising and mood of society. The demand for advertising is growing because it plays an important role in economic development. But the impact on the effectiveness of advertising potential buyer should use the experience of other branches of knowledge.
In many ways, the effectiveness of an advertising campaign depends on the design language of the advertising text. In drawing up the advertising text of paramount importance is the careful selection of linguistic resources used in the ad text.
Elucidation of language features of advertising text in advertising promotion can be carried out within the framework of sociolinguistics, pragmatics, stylistics, theory of communication. All these disciplines share an interest in language in terms of its communicative functionality, ability to influence the recipient. When considering advertising in terms of linguistics there is a natural interest in the linguistic features of advertising text.
The object of this study is the language of contemporary German-language advertising, the subject - the structure and semantics of German-language advertising slogan - the slogan of the advertised brand.
Analysis of an advertising slogan covers a wide range of issues. The most relevant, in my opinion, are the following issues: the role of language as a means of persuasion, cooperation and mutual interests of the message recipient and language advertising slogan, especially the use of linguistic resources in order to influence, lexical-semantic and stylistic features of the pragma-functioning language slogan in the advertising text .
Thus, the aim of this work is the lexical-semantic analysis of contemporary German-language advertising slogan.
To achieve this goal were as follows:
find German-speaking advertising slogans in modern advertising texts on the Internet and print media;
consider advertising as a social and cultural phenomenon, define the functions, objectives and effects of advertising, as well as its main types;
identify the genre features of modern German-language advertising text;
conduct semantic and stylistic analysis of advertising slogans;
identify the syntactic features of the organization of modern German-language advertising slogans.
Tasks involve a stylistic and pragmatic aspects of the advertising text. In considering these issues, it is important to investigate which properties of language advertising slogan allow an effective means of exposure. In this regard, we analyze some features of the use of linguistic resources in the advertising slogan.
Research material 150 advertising messages, collected by continuous sampling on the Internet and in the press.
In my work the following methods: taxonomic method, descriptive method and quantitative analysis.
The work consists of an introduction, three chapters (theoretical and practical 2), conclusion, bibliography.
The first chapter of this work is devoted to the general issues of the functioning of modern advertising text, its genre features, features of structural organization. In the second chapter, based on the analysis of the factual material disclosed lexical and stylistic features of language advertising slogan. The third chapter focuses on the syntactic organization of contemporary German advertising slogans, it pragma stylistic significance. In conclusion summarizes issledovaniya.Glava I. The advertising text as an object of linguistic research 1.1. Advertising as a sociocultural phenomenon 1.1.1. Advertising Options
In the fully modern society is characterized by two main determining it is closely related to each other, - "information society" and "consumer society." The rapid development of information technology, which led sociologists and politicians talk about the transition of the atomic age into the information led (not least through advertising) to the formation of "consumer society", a society in which consumption became the main content of social life, edging out second plan the production and accumulation of [Pankratov: 2001, 89].
Advertising - the motor trade, "informant" about the achievements in different areas of production - facilitates quick reference consumer with the new standards of life, and sometimes forcing them.
The term "advertising" is derived from the Latin word "reklamare" («shout loudly" or "notify"). According to the American Marketing Association advertising is "... any form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services paid accurately established by the customer" and serves to attract the attention of potential consumers to the object of advertising, using the most effective techniques and methods to the particular situation [Pankratov: 2001, 76].
We can say that the purpose of advertising is to ensure to convince potential customers of the utility of the product and bring it to the thought of having to buy it. Advertising message (in a simplified form it) is reduced to the formula: "If you buy something and then something will get such a favor ..."
The purpose of advertising is determined by its function. Researchers distinguish the following functions:
1) economic function: skillful advertising stimulates the sale of goods and promotes the growth of profits;
2) information function: to inform customers about products and services;
3) communicative function: advertising informs and creates an image of producers;
4) aesthetic function: the researchers note the close relationship of advertising and art, the desire of the first to use all the advanced techniques of the second, and sometimes the advertisement itself is considered one of the last species, up to the organization of international festivals of advertising art (for example, the so-called "Night of devourers of advertising") .
GP Carton notes that advertising affects consumers is stronger, the more they internal consistency, willingness to accept new information. If this willingness is not present, consumers or refuse to trust the source, or simply block it using a suitable source. The total impact of advertising on all consumers impossible, ultimately, these attempts result in unreasonable costs.
Therefore, the main task is to search for advertisers consumers willing to accept new information. This task is not nothing but a search for motives and desires of consumers, in order to respond to them and meet them in full or in part, simultaneously creating new needs and new desires.
Advertising-belief has a wide range - from hard sell to unobtrusive advice. As with any conviction, such advertising is predominantly verbal in nature. Advertising-belief uses a different argument to prove that the goods must be purchased [Cardboard: 1991, 54].
Thus, over time, change the primary purpose of advertising. If earlier it was the aim of promoting a product or service, but now, in our time in a consumer society advertising became the main lever of moving goods in the consumer market. She manipulates people's minds, inspire the need to purchase the advertised product.
1.1.2. Purpose and effects of advertising
In order to encourage people to a specific action: the choice of goods or services, charitable action et al. Used a variety of means and methods of psychological influence on the audience. These are the techniques of suggestion (suggestion), persuasion, "imposing" the merits of the subject, idea, person or phenomenon. Important role belongs to the ability to create an attractive promotional image, or the image of the advertised object. Therefore, along with the main objective (to prove the necessity of purchase), there is also a number of private, such as:
remind consumers about the company and its product or service;
attract the attention of a potential customer;
create a favorable image (image) of the firm - manufacturer or seller;
the formation of consumers' knowledge about the company and the product;
to form a positive attitude towards the company;
generate demand for this product and services.
These objectives are achieved by exposure to the buyer via a number of advertising effects. Effect - a strong impression made by anyone or anything, and the means or technique whose purpose - to influence the perception of the person, to surprise him, to create the illusion of something [Kokhta: 1991, 1]. NN Kokhta indicates the ten major effects of advertising:
1) the effect of verbal clarity: advertising, using the word, it operates laid concrete content and imagery;
2) the effect of emotional empathy: viewing or listening to the ad text, the reader perceives the emotions that are expressed in it, "charged" them;
3) the effect of reflection: the author reflects on the subject of the advertisement along with the reader / listener, and the judgment of the object are one after the other so that the preceding propositions follow or follow others, and as a result - it turns out the answer to this question;
4) the effect of trust: associated with reliance on the authority of speech, according to the authoritative person or group of people are used to confirm and explain the thoughts that were expressed in the advertisement;
5) the effect of the controversy: the opposition of various judgments or goods, their comparison; as a clash of different opinions attracts controversy shapes our consciousness helps to understand the essence of the phenomenon;
6) the effect of straight talk: the effect of the previous close and reflects the dialogic text advertising - advertising says with a potential buyer, and his word is used for persuasion and transmission of certain information;
7) the effect of presence: in this case the effect of the potential consumer becomes a party to the action associated with the object of advertising;
8) the effect of gradual strengthening: is achieved by gradual strengthening emotional and logical content of advertising, you need to avoid "temporarily disable attention," observed when entering the same or similar pieces of information;
9) the effect of the edge: the basic idea of ??advertising better and better perceived if it is clearly stated in the beginning or even more favorable, at the end of the composition;
10) effect to fail: it is sometimes called the "method of extraneous ideas", which consists in the fact that the content of advertising text at first glance does not correspond to his idea.
All these effects are related to the psychology of the impact of advertising on the consumer. The choice of possible effects - the task of an advertising agency, and this choice is due both to the advertised item and view the advertising message provided by the agency to the client-advertiser.
1.1.3. Types of advertising
Since advertising - a relatively new phenomenon, which is the object of study of many sciences (economics, psychology, sociolinguistics, etc.), rather it is an issue of classification.
This is due not least to the question cht? actually necessary to understand by the word "advertising".
According to most researchers, any kind of advertising must meet four basic requirements:
be paid form of communication,
the source of its funding should be known,
disseminated through the media,
should be designed a certain group of the population, ie be a phenomenon of mass communication.
Classification of advertising can go to:
the target audience;
functions and objectives;
covered area of ??distribution;
means of transmission;
mode of expression.
The greatest difficulties arise in the classification by means of transmission, which is caused by the emergence of new forms of advertising; for example, this kind of as the Direct Mail (direct mail), which at the initial stage of its development was in fact a means of personal communication: letters sent out for publicity or an employee of the company and addressed specifically (with the name and surname) to each consumer in each case varied text. However, at present it is - a recognized form of advertising, and FG Pankratov include it in the list of the main types of advertisements, along with:
1) Advertising in print media (advertising and publishing an overview and advertising);
2) print advertising (advertising and catalog publications, catalogs, brochures, booklets, posters, leaflets, posters);
3) audio-visual advertising (advertising films, videos, slide films, commercials);
4) on the radio (radio announcements, radio spots, radio magazines, radio advertising);
5) TV advertising (TV movie, TV commercials, telezastavki, advertisements, TV report);
6) Exhibitions and fairs;
7) promotional gifts;
8) outdoor advertising (billboards, murals, banners advertising);
9) computerized advertising (computer equipment, computerized information telekatalogi) [Pankratov: 2001, 46].
Target audience advertising is divided into consumer and business. Consumer advertising is aimed at a well-defined audience: teenagers, housewives, residents of some regions, etc. If you ads appeared unattractive, it may well be that you belong to another social group, not to the one that designed this announcement.
Business advertising - for industry, trade, c / x, banking. Usually, it is placed in specialized publications: in professional journals or mailed directly to the organization.
Function and objectives of advertising can be divided into commercial (market, corporate), political and / or social (non-marketed advertising). Trade advertising occupies a leading place among the types of advertising. Consumption is not reduced to passive use of things, it becomes an active process of their choice and regular updating, which is obliged to participate every member of society. For approval and regulation of such a lifestyle is advertising, whose purpose - not so much to promote the sale of a product, as implemented in the public mind the image of the whole society, these products are consumed. Due to the consumerist ideology of modern society, untwisted excessive and conspicuous consumption, imposed excessive consumption standards, invent unprecedented early modification of goods and services. Media, public opinion, and finally, advertising actively impose human role of the consumer. Consumer freedom is not limited, and the market in a hurry to carry out any of his whim.
However, other forms of advertising are important to people's lives. Throughout the world, has long been used political advertising, applying unique means and methods of agitation for political leaders, political programs, ideas, views.
Social advertising forms of social consciousness, promotes socialization, focusing on moral issues, on issues of healthy lifestyles (eg "Antinarko"), or, echoing the political advertising, campaigning for political consciousness of the population (participation in elections to municipal and federal authorities and etc.).
But there is something in common, unifying various types of advertising: the appointment of any advertising works - to encourage people to a specific action (choice of goods or services, vote for the proposed candidate, participate in the cult action, etc.) [Pankratov: 2001, 65].
Covered by the dissemination of isolated foreign, national, regional, local and intra advertising. As an in-house advertising often use graphs, charts, diagrams, and other items illustrative graphics.
According to the method of expression advertising is divided into "hard" and "soft." "Tough" advertising is very similar in spirit to the measures to stimulate sales and often accompanies them. Such advertising has short-term goals: to work on the object so as to bring him to Purchase screaming, designed for external effect ads. "Soft" advertising is aimed not only to inform about the product, but also to create a positive atmosphere around. Most often it is the emotional ads playing on the symbolism. It gradually changes the mood of a potential buyer in favor of any goods, forming the inner willingness to purchase.
Thus, after a long evolutionary path from ad to the manipulation of consciousness or consciousness formation, advertising has become an important cultural component of modern society. This explains the increased interest on the part of specialists in various areas. As a dominant position in the advertising media takes linguistic system, the advertising and becomes the object of study of linguistics, where advertising is seen as the language of mass communication, endowed with functional and stylistic features.
1.2.Vozdeystvie advertising per person
It is natural that advertising borrows methods of human exposure to improve their own efficiency. Not only because so psychologists say, but by analyzing their purchasing behavior themselves, we quickly realize that we make a purchase, subject to no one impulse: hesitate waver - and suddenly buy. Sophisticated advertising just contributes to the early manifestation of such a pulse. So, advertising contributes to the trance of the buyers, the manifestation of consumer pulse.
All sciences are important. But for advertisers, especially important psychology. That it gives the main parameters for the development of advertising concepts. And art should clothe these psihologiche6ski reasonable concept in all possible forms of talent. Art must translate complex psychological calculations to your attractive and understandable language.
Thinking buyers abounds known stereotypes:
Deficit - always good and valuable. Beautiful can not be much. Better when the item exists in strictly limited quantities. It is necessary to organize an advertising campaign: "In the country there were 10 instances of the car" Porsche "! In turn, it has already signed up several thousand people! "These cars will buy up to two days.
Expensive goods - means a good product.
Traditional soundly and worthy purchase. Some sellers are written on a bottle of wine, it is, they say, already made 18 years ... Some even are styled antique to prove that their wine is really "classical", even the name on the label written on the old Russian style, which is designed to emphasize the continuity of traditions of winemaking.
Authority should always be trusted. For example, the drug can be bought on the market, and much cheaper. However, we used to buy it at a pharmacy, considering it a real, effective. Image of a man in a white coat, so works perfectly in any advertising - not only drugs, but also chewing gum and toothpaste. In advertising have long been used "geographical" and "name" principles. For example, choosing a good watch, you will surely prefer goods Swiss company. Same thing with names suit «Hugo Boss» buy much faster than the same suit with a dubious mark. When this is actually not the quality can vary.
Once everyone is doing - then it is correct. If all go to Greece for fur coats, so it is a really good product. All keep their savings in the Savings Bank? We can not all be wrong, then it is the most reliable bank.
The use of stereotypes - an advertising technology, always rescued advertiser.
At the heart of any advertising technologies is the manipulation of consumer behavior. Manipulation is always implicitly, secretly, because who in their right mind would agree to it in addition to their own will were forced to perform any actions, unusual to him. A striking example of manipulation - countless different species "psychics", "magicians", "witches" and other masters of defrauding money from people. Suddenly it turns out that we have put some kind of "damage" and only psychics can it successfully "remove" - ??for a hefty fee, of course. This is an example of extremely effective manipulation in order to advertise their services. The most important thing is that we made the choice we seemed own decision, reasonable and prudent.
Experts say several stages of manipulation of consciousness. First, determine the stability of stereotypes, having motivational analysis, to identify existing values ??in society, the manipulator tries to emphasize and deepen them. Then, made almost invisible, but very important elements that are beginning to gradually influence our perception of the event. And finally, a deep influence on our life values ??with a view to their absolute change until the opposite.
There are many methods for manipulating the mass consciousness. For example, techniques such as crushing and localization. When, for example, the most interesting stuff magazine is divided into several parts, which are scattered around the number. Thus, the reader is forced to view the entire log, including advertising tab. In the TV movie advertising tabs constantly interrupt the story the most interesting place, but as a viewer tends to see the outcome, he is forced to watch and advertising.
In principle, all methods of manipulation of consciousness are intended to achieve neutralization of actions critical analysis of information to the target audience.
1.2.2.Rol mental processes in the formation of advertising images
The human brain has certain peculiarities of perception surrounding reality that must be considered when designing advertisements. Excelling in their capabilities of today's computers, the brain differs from them in that it has a tendency to focus on certain objects and exclude attention not interest him. This tendency is subject to certain laws.
Feeling. In the promotional activities are most commonly used visual, auditory, gustatory, motor, olfactory and tactile sensations.
Psychophysiological Fechner law: for very large values ??of the stimulus person experiences less change in sensation, than for small. Not always best for perception are very intense exposure (loud noises, bright colors, etc.).
Vospriyatie.Vospriyatie done intelligently. A major role in the perception plays recognition. The process of perception is automatic. Man "completes" the image to integrity.
There are two types of information: symbolic (words, letters, numbers) and analog (images, sounds, feelings). To decrypt character information takes time and effort, the sign information is perceived at a conscious and unconscious level. Analog information is characterized by the fact that she quickly learns conscious attention and directly (without decoding) perceived subconscious.
In forming judgments about the human reality involves three main processes: generalization, exclusion and misrepresentation.
Opasnost.V reaction to the process of evolution the human brain for self-preservation developed certain reaction (on a subconscious level) for various types of objects, and the presence of certain factors object causes resentment. That is wrong accents on his page or advertisement, you can call the opposite impression.
Resolution. Large objects (and psevdouvelichennye) sensitivities, but the stronger the reaction to an object - the more rejection. Outdoor advertising billboard on the highway is perceived more relaxed (distance, speed, state of protection in the car). And the same panel on the footpath can simply suppress the viewer with its size and huge color spots.
Color. In certain proportions of color can create a mood and attract attention, but in violation of these relations towards increase can be perceived as dangerous and cause a reaction of disbelief.
Select an object from the environment. Among similar objects focuses on the object that is different some qualities. One black cow among the herds of red, a big announcement on the front page in young, color image among black and white, and vice versa. The same panel of the outdoor advertising in summer and winter is perceived differently due to the environment.
The angle of view. The eye has a certain angle, which provides a favorable perception of the field. The maximum angle of 57 degrees perception eyes, optimum - 35-40 degrees. These data allow us to calculate the most favorable sizes of advertising at various distances. If the screen is at an average distance of 35-40 cm from the eye, the optimal image size is 15 - 18 cm in height and 10-14 cm in width (incorporated features of binocular vision).
Psychological perception of color. The retina is the so-called rods and cones, and the sticks are responsible for the perception of tone, and cones - for color perception. Different people have the ratio of rods and cones is different, and therefore the perception is quite different. Some people do perceive color, and others - form. But clearly determined that the male dominated sticks, and for women - cones. This implies that the design has more women color value, and therefore - the mood, and for men - shape, and hence the content.
Each color has its own tone, ie a degree of lightness. And so you can build any form of certain color tones. If your TV or computer screen colors have their own light, in print or billboards they shine by reflected light, and this imposes certain properties - reflexes scale environment, the reflective properties of the material, which made advertising, and much more. The same poster in the room with light from an ordinary lamp has a yellowish hue, and on the street - cold bluish. These features should be taken into account as well when shooting video camera. No wonder even professionals on a sunny day light model with additional spotlights with lamps certain emission spectrum.
The main colors in the construction of any scale or palette are red, yellow and blue. By mixing these three colors can be obtained in any other color or shade. Derivatives are said color obtained by mixing two neighboring primary colors. Red and yellow make orange, yellow and blue make green, blue and red gives purple.
1.3. Advertising text - a special kind of text
1.3.1. Genre types of advertising text
Text is an integral part of most advertising messages. He usually is the main element that reveals the main content of the advertising message.
Advertising text - a collection of advertising content and its form, that is a symbiosis of "ideas" and "expression." While creating a text question of "expression", that is, the linguistic subtleties, stands on the stage of editing. This also applies to advertising. Language of advertising - it's verbal means by which this content is transmitted. Idea can be summarized in many ways, using a lot of stylistic nuances and accents. There are various ways to build a composition of text in different ways to divide it into paragraphs, different make suggestions on ways to look up words in different ways to place them in a sentence. Ideally, the advertising text "everything should be fine": top-selling ideas contained beautiful language, beautifully decorated so beautifully facilitate human interpretation and assimilation [Cardboard: 1991, 65].
Therefore, for advertising purposes are used in almost all journalistic genres that can be divided into three groups:
1) Information: Notes, interview, report, reportage, lowercase advertising;
2) analysis: correspondence, articles, reviews, review, review, comment;
3) journalistic: sketch, sketch.
The latter group is actively used in the preparation of materials "public relations" - materials with a hidden advertisement.
Can be identified twelve major types of advertising text, the most commonly used for advertising companies:
ad - paid advertising message, usually containing advertising slogan-title;
advertising article - is a purely informational genre: from it the reader learns, what, where and when released, or was (will be);
advertising interviews - finished RT, united by a common sense (properties advertised product) and consisting of blocks "question and answer";
Advertising Review - a comprehensive review of the advertised object (books, films, concerts, exhibitions, etc.);
advertising report - reports of any event, with the main focus is on building during the presentation of advertising image;
advertising essay - talks about the advertised object in image-journalistic form and all of its presentation is subject to the same goal - advertising of;
advertising Advice - is advice given by experts on the use of goods or services;
advertising story - a short story with a simple plot and interesting composition, the situation described in which should be linked to the advertised object;
advertising article - different in-depth analysis and detailed description of the advertised object, generalizations;
lowercase or rubritsirovannaya advertising - advertising text -obyavleniya view that is placed on the advertising pages of periodicals or non-promotional nature is the basis of advertising publications.
It is worth noting that most of the above promotional genres typical for newspaper and magazine advertising, while the list of types of advertising by means of transmission is quite wide (for example, according to Pankratov FG - 11 points). Serves these types often considered the first of our genres - an advertisement that best reveals the specifics common to the advertising text.
An important requirement for advertising text - maximum information with a minimum of words. The number of words in the text should be such that the buyer without any difficulty it could encompass a glance. Highlighted words with higher advertising value, great emotional force, creating a visual, tangible way [Pankratov: 2001, 98]. Advertising is expensive; here, when it comes, for example, television advertising time - indeed money. For the minimum time necessary to convey the essence of that most closely affect the buyer in order to force it, as they say in marketing, "love and want the goods", which requires the economical use of textual information.
Approximately the same pattern is observed in the manufacture of outdoor advertising. The task of the stand, billboards or signs, first and foremost - to attract the attention of visual images to make a potential buyer to stop and then read located on the stand or sign advertising text. Therefore, the main area of ??the picture is given (photo collage), and the text requires brevity and descriptive as possible. Both requirements are satisfied ad, which reflects the structure of the economy and the desire to maximize the expression of the advertising text.
1.3.2. Features of the structural organization of the advertising text.
In the construction of the advertising text is very important syntactic organization. Unity provides tight syntactic cohesion of individual structural parts, which are super-phrasal unity and phrases from which the unity composed. The close connection syntax actualizes advertising information, provides the active promotion of advertising ideas. To attract the attention used a rhetorical question, exclamation, question-answer form the beginning of the text. Rounding out the text of remarks with a touch of incentive trust requests, advice, reminders.
Often, however, the ad text - the text of unconventional character, which is reflected in its syntactic structure. The main structural and syntactic characteristics of traditional text are:
text composed of one or more bids;
lines are filled completely (except for lines beginning paragraph, and the final line);
line aligned to the left;
use uppercase and lowercase letters;
One proposal is typed one font;
spaces between words and sentences are the same everywhere.
Ie it is calculated on the traditional text punctuation rules and graphic design shape words, rules for the use of uppercase and lowercase letters, transfer rules.
According to VI Kon'kova, promotional text is a text structure of a qualitatively different type [unconventional text], characterized by the following set of features [Kon'kov: 1996, 17]:
text may consist not only of units denominative type - words and phrases: words and phrases that are not related to predlozhencheskie structures can fill the entire volume of text alone or in combination with proposals;
line is not completely filled;
strings can be aligned not only to the left, but on the right, or center;
font can be used where there is no distinction between uppercase and lowercase letters;
One proposal could split into a part in the recruitment through the use of two or more fonts;
standing next suggestions can gain different fonts that installs between the two additional semantic relations;
spaces between words and sentences can be arbitrary.
Such organization of the text associated most often with semantic structure of the advertising message - namely, with the division of the basic semantic elements of the advertising text.
Advertising text consists of four main elements, which are almost always used in advertising: title, subtitle, the main text, a slogan (motto) [Crompton: 1995, 14].
Title draws attention to the text, interest the buyer. This - the core of advertising and the strongest promise to the customer. Therefore, you should come up with its powerful on the impact and clear in meaning.
Subtitled - a bridge between the header and the main text. If a client interested in the title, subtitle gives you another chance to bring him to purchase. And in the main text fulfills the promise of the header.
In its structure, the text is divided into three parts: introduction, body and conclusion. In the introduction the advertiser introduces consumers to the topic. This is appropriate in that if the consumer is unfamiliar with this problem, or may not be aware of it as such. The main part contains the essence of the offer. It identifies the main benefits of the product / service. It is known that the reader of the advertising text is not so much interested in the goods, as the benefits that it can be learned from them. So the main thing in this section - the consumer to prove logically, for example, that the advertised product - what he really needs. In conclusion summarizes proposed.
The final phrase - slogan. Advertising slogan (a motto of the brand) - this is a brief catchy phrase that conveys a bright, imaginative form the main idea of ??the campaign. Tagline helps distinguish the firm from its competitors and gives integrity series of promotional activities. A good slogan support the reputation of the company and reflects its specificity. Important characteristics of rhetorical slogans are short, rhythmic and phonetic repetition, contrast, language game and the effect of the hidden dialogue. The slogan is an important component of corporate identity [Crompton: 1995, 84].
Creating a good slogan requires great skill, intuition and creative insight. Nevertheless, it is possible to formulate some principles of successful slogans. These principles relate to the content, information of the slogan or related to rhetoric - to the way this information is presented. The slogan is advertised object, characterizes him, his individualization - stands out from the others. In a sense, the slogan serves deployed own name [Romanova: 2000, 14].
From a substantive point of view, for a prestigious advertising are the most suitable slogans that help create and maintain the reputation of the company, are welcome how it works, form a trust relationship to it [Crompton: 1995, 54].
Slogan occupies a central place in the structure of the advertising text. Along with the advertised his own name, he expresses the basic meaning of the concept of advertising. Often the entire ad text consists of the advertised own name and the accompanying slogan [Romanova: 2000, 14]. Therefore, we can consider the slogan a separate genre types of advertising text, and, as the slogan - the most expressive form of advertising text reasonably important to consider its semantic and structural and stylistic components, to identify the main lexical means expressive vozdeystviya.Glava 2. The form and content advertising slogan 2.1.Slogan as the central component of advertising communication
Important in advertising communication becomes a slogan. If successful, use it helps to create a bright advertising image and increases the impact of advertising on the potential consumer.
To get started find out what is meant by the term "slogan" and what features it has. The term "slogan" comes from the Gaelic and means "battle cry". For the first time this concept in the modern sense was used in 1880. The slogan - "the second name of the product," says advertising practices MM Blinkina-Miller. Slogan - short catchy phrase, the basis of advertising communication, a kind of motto, which expresses the main idea of ??the offer, voicing that the advertiser expects to attract potential customers.
Talking about the features of a slogan, it is important to identify its impact on the audience and the mass consciousness formation of communicative abilities of the recipients of the advertising information. On the one hand, the slogan can be regarded as a special "mirror" of culture, objectively reflects the impact of communication society. In our opinion, this shows the unique slogan as a social phenomenon. This conclusion is justified, as the slogan aims to "speak" the same language as the consumer, to be as clear and close to the audience, which is referred to.
On the other hand, the slogan is designed to perform a specific, pragmatic task: to attract the attention of potential consumers, stimulate the purchase and bring profit organization advertiser. And consequently, it should be clear target audience and vozdeystvovt on her motives.
The dualistic nature slogan defines the specifics of its use in advertising. This process resembles a kind of cycle: the desire to maximize impact and, therefore, closer to the language level to the consumer determines the choice, combination and compatibility of linguistic resources in the process of creating an advertising message, and the constant broadcast of advertising messages by the mass media influences the culture of the society. Successful advertising slogans live for years, becoming part of modern civilization and penetrating the language environment recipients advertising information.
In a highly competitive company slogan is a good opportunity to attract the attention of potential buyers, stimulating poupki goods or services, as transfers in bright figurative form the main idea of ??the advertising campaign, gives integrity series of promotional activities. The slogan is an important component of corporate identity, advertising policy.
According to researchers, a slogan - it is "a percussion instrument of advertising." He must carry the advertising idea, to talk about the subject of advertising something important. And it's not just advertising to express the idea of ??one of the company's announcements, and the key idea of ??the whole advertising campaign and do all the marketing policy of the company. This series of substantive requirements formed the basis of attitudes advertising.
The same slogan reproduced in any advertising firm. Slogan, like logo, is a period of time and becomes a kind of "identification mark" of the firm. Also slogan can reflect the unique object and the specificity of advertising offers advertisers, thus transferring the key message the advertiser and contributing to its transfer to the concept of positioning.
Effective, and therefore effective, memorable slogan is absolutely consistent with the tasks of marketing. B. Kevorkov writes that "an effective slogan encourages the consumer to the desired action and / or active complicity brand. Successful slogan becomes a key element of the advertising company brand. It supports in the minds of the target group of consumers that motivates the idea, which was founded in the brand. "
"Effective slogan must contain a means of expressing personal principle" as a lexical and grammatical level on - said AD Krivonosov. According to him, in the slogan should be used elementary predicative communicative models - simple sentences, any complicated syntax immediately make the slogan "potential outsider in memorability." Perfect slogan firmly "grows" in the minds of consumers and causes the target audience direct associations with the advertised product. Moreover, these associations will certainly contribute to the purchase of the product.
Since advertising texts simply must be seductive line of duty, and the slogan is a central component of any advertising message, select it rhetorical characteristics. Among them: short, rhythmic and phonetic repetition, contrast, language game and the effect of the hidden dialogue.
The analysis shows that when promoting the particular service in the advertising slogans are most commonly used verbs in the imperative: "Do not put off for tomorrow life!" (Russian Standard Bank / consumer loans to the public); "Build your happiness!" (Savings / loan "Young Family"); "Allow yourself more!"; "Think about the good!" (Alfa Bank Express).
Referring to the classification of slogans. Slogans are divided into pragmatic and imaginative. Pragmatic emphasize the real quality of the goods and addressed to the mind of the consumer. Imaginative slogans attributed to product image characteristics and face the feelings of the consumer. It is also possible slogans, combining pragmatic and imaginative.
Among the main functions of an advertising slogan researchers call attractiveness and informative. According to AD Krivonosov under attractiveness refers to the ability to attract attention and memorizatsii (memorizing) PR-information. This function is similar to the functions of the slogan advertising in general: informative and impact.
Morozov points to another feature of the slogan - "to serve as a link between many individual messages included in the overall advertising campaign and have different formats: television commercials, models in the press, billboards."
In summary, it should be noted that the majority of researchers agree that the slogan as the central component of the advertising text is a kind of motto: one or more short, catchy, emotionally charged phrases commonly used by the company to create a positive attitude to the subject of consumer advertising. The slogan is necessary to ensure recognition of the advertiser and is based on an integrated advertising deystviy.2.2.Slogany in modern advertising
Each company is committed to ensuring that its advertising was understood by consumers and easy to remember. Only in this case it is possible to get real income and to make advertising work in full force. So, trying to make their ads more understandable and memorable, manufacturing companies unwittingly encounter the need to create a short, but quite roomy corporate slogan, which was not only very precise, but also with the best hand goods emphasized the firm and its specificity. In professional circles advertisers such corporate slogan is called the "slogan".
The slogan of any company is constantly used by the original motto. It allows not only to emphasize the advantages of the basic product, but also contributes to rapid memorization, and hence in subsequent use not perform the function of informing, and acts as a Reminder for this product. As in the preparation of the project, the creation of a slogan has its own rules and features, the observance of which contributes to better its impact on the consumer.
Thus, the basic requirement for the slogan is its organic of inscribed in general corporate identity of the owner. Only in this case, the motto is able to contribute not only to the budget of Irma, but also contribute to the formation of a common image of the company. An excellent example of quality and productive slogan is the motto of the company for the production of pet food "Whiskas". Advertising cat food, they put forward a slogan: "Your pussy would buy" Whiskas "." The emphasis here is on the desire pet, and therefore emphasizes the care of the consumer about this.
In the event that slogan and image of the company diverge sharply, efficiency slogan is equal to zero. An example of this can be many major companies producing hygiene products for women and men. Very often their ads gives vulgarity and lack of accounting standards is permitted.
Follow the rules of efficiency slogan is accounting features that audience and clientele to which it is directed. If this is the motto for the youth, a reminder of the 60s. in no way will not help either memorize or performance of this slogan. And in turn, the motto "The young generation chooses Pepsi" will attract a wide range of young consumers and contribute to an increase in the monetary equivalent of the firm. The main subject of this rule - a good understanding of the slogan chosen audience.
Besides the fact that the slogan should be short and well-remembered, it certainly should be a kind of zest, originality, or consumer preferences would give him no, but more intriguing motto. At the same time, seeking to comply with the quality, do not bend the bar, because originality is perceived only if it meets certain limits.
A significant role in creating a slogan plays and emotional color. As you know, that does not cause any human associations and emotions do not attract his attention, and hence do not remember. The intensity of the color of emotional slogan is half of his success. Thus, the slogan of beer "Patra" "Beer Patra - beer cap" does not carry any associations, and therefore does not cause the consumer nor negative. Neither of positive emotions. The company's slogan Sprite "Do not let yourself wither" most directly affects the subconscious mind of man and gives him the appropriate emotions.
Huge role in achieving efficiency slogan plays its orientation. So, as a slogan can be selected that trait that most strongly attract consumers to the product. This, for example, customer care, emphasizing the exceptional qualities of the firm, the emphasis on the achieved power and authority or keeping consumer benefits from the acquisition of such goods. So caring is reflected in slogans like Tefal company motto: "Tefal. You care about us. " A typical example of focusing on the qualities of the company is the slogan of "Rank Xerox": "We taught the world to copy."
General advertising slogans can be divided into three categories:
The slogan of the company.
The slogan of the advertising company.
Slogan associated with the proposal of certain goods or services.
Each of them has specific characteristics.
The slogan of the company (its motto) in principle can not be changed. He - part of the image of the company, and its change - a change of image, usually undesirable. Some brand slogans in the United States have existed for decades. The slogan of the company as it expresses its "philosophy" and emphasizes the dignity of the goods manufactured by.
I will give examples of these slogans, both Western and domestic. Unfortunately, they are difficult to separate by "geographical" apartments. The fact that the slogans of foreign companies on the Russian market, mingled with the slogans of our domestic firms, which is not alien to borrowing "foreign experience". And, nevertheless, I will try to somehow split, although the accuracy of this division vouch difficult.
So slogans expressing the philosophy of the company.
In the West:
"Let's change lives for the better» (Philips).
"Our main product - Progress» (Sony).
"We have to live with ease!» (Moulinex).
"The best thing for a better life» (DuPont).
"Tradition and modernity. We take the best of them »(Bangkok Bank Limited).
"Touching for tomorrow» (Toshiba).
"The impossible is possible!» (Motorola).
"New technologies» (Hitachi).
"Joy in your home» (Rowenta).
"Comprehension of perfection» (Kenwood).
"The ideal technique for real life» (Samsung).
"Brilliant - is forever» (De Birs).
"While Creating new rush to the future» (Orient, hours).
"Ford has a better idea!"
"The rhythm of our lives" (Moskovsky Komsomolets).
"Ahead of step" (Bank of the Russian credit).
"There is a real value." Slogan supported by the image of the pyramid and sphinx (Inkom).
"We have provided storm on a sunny day" (White Tower Insurance Company).
"We finance anything that changes lives for the better" (Financial Group Menatep).
"The goal - Revival" (All-Russian Real Estate Exchange).
"With us - to the top!" (Capital Bank).
"Revive Russia together!" (Excimer-Invest).
But slogans proclaiming quality of the goods:
In the West:
"You can be sure if it« Westinghouse »».
"When the end" Slot ", ends with a beer."
"Tool immortal» (Stenway, grand pianos).
"Paradise pleasure" (chocolate Baunty).
"We know how to know and with whom" (Bank Saipern).
"Made wisely!» (Elektorlux).
"You always think about us» (Tefal).
"The quality, win the trust of men» (Wilkinson).
"Only a true chocolate can be named" Cadbury "."
"Europe first-hand" (Radio Deutsche Welle).
"Shoes, which starred with regret and wear with pleasure" (Monarch).
"We know how" (FIM Bank).
"Always on top" (the Bank "Aeroflot").
"Perhaps the best bank in Russia" (Menatep).
"The magazine" Profile "read in one breath."
Magazine "Results", "Earth - the only planet in the galaxy, where reading the magazine" Results "."
It should be recognized that the majority of slogans, even branded, fall short of expectations. Not accidentally David Ogilvy calls them "interchangeable bombastic and cliches." And, nevertheless, the firm without its slogan - as the person whose name you know, but what kind of person he - no. At least know how he characterizes himself as he himself is that he thinks of himself.
Corporate slogan often used as a logo, constantly keeping its graphic form. Or logo appears in the form of corporate emblem, logo, corporate slogan, which are often either embedded in this image, or adjacent to it.
The slogan of the advertising campaign and slogan trading very close to each other. The only difference is that the advertising campaign slogan refers to the entire company, as it gives it a "header". Shopping same slogan is directly related to a specific product or service. It is these kinds of slogans and used as the title of the advertisement.
The most important slogans of the advertising companies and trade slogans based on the following reasons: health, comfort, sensual pleasure, entertainment, benefits, savings (time, effort, money), admiration, parental love, pride, prestige, curiosity.
For example, a corporate slogan Kodak: «You press the button, we do the rest." It refers to all activities of the company. But here Kodak advances on the market its new film «Gold», and there is an advertising campaign slogan: "Kodak Royal Gold - for those moments that are most significant."
This separation slogans applies to political advertising. Here's an example. The overall association Apple slogan: "Reform without shock, politics - without the barricades." But the particular advertising campaign slogan (referring to the clip with Newton): "Choose" Apple "as the head fell off something else."
Slogan can express the attitude to certain economic and social problems. So, at a time when the largest car manufacturer in the US, the firm «General Motors», began to attack the Japanese automobile imports, the company has put forward the slogan: "Listen to the heartbeat ... Listen to the heartbeat ... ... Listen to the heartbeat of America." In the same series and slogan against littering USA: "Keep America beautiful!". And again: "Be American, Buy American!".
Inventing a slogan - it is extremely difficult. A million words have to select three or four, the most important for the company. Mark Twain once said: "The difference between the almost exact words and precise word is the same as the difference between the lightning bug and the lightning flash." How can catch conclude in the words of this "bolt of lightning"?
In some cases incorrectly selected slogan can be harmful. Ambiguous slogan led to the scandal, as is clearly not consistent environment: the Ministry of Health of Spain was forced to stop the campaign against AIDS because of its slogan "Open your mouth for sex."
Share on posters reading "Open your mouth for sex", and below the small print completed, "talk to your partner about using condoms." Spanish Ministry of Health experts hope that these posters will make young people think about the consequences of unsafe sex. But ambiguous call caused a flurry of discontent and complaints, and the Ministry of Health was forced to stop the campaign. Representative of the Ministry in this regard noted with regret: "The slogan was perceived as a call to a specific sexual acts, and not as an attempt to start a dialogue."
Slogan - it is an advertising slogan, which expresses the essence of the offer. If it succeeds, it is strongly associated in the minds of consumers with the products for which coined: "Welcome to the country" Marlboro "!". The slogan certainly carries some emotional charge, directly or indirectly encourages the purchase: "The new generation chooses" Pepsi "!". Today, virtually no serious firms that would not be his own - successful or not - an advertising slogan.
Really good motto must have at least a couple of the following features that most clearly reflect the nature of the slogan:
Brevity. This sister of talent plays in creating a good rallying cry important role. Do not need to specifically prove that the length is inversely proportional to its slogan memorization and similarity with the motto. A good example of brevity and tact: candidate for governor Gromov on the background of a stormy sky and a single word: "cleared up". Gromov does not impose itself, and connects the change for the better with his rise to power as it gradually. Another no less striking example of brevity and expressiveness: forfeits advertising slogan - "Sign up!". Sufficiently successful invention.
National character. It is important to be felt in the slogan Russian traditions and culture. Copying even the best foreign slogans to no good cause can not. Advertising laxative: big gray elephant in a small chamber pot. Caption: "Goodbye sadness!". This slogan, works well in Europe, says nothing to those Russians who are unfamiliar with the book by Francoise Sagan "Bonjour Tristesse".
Respect for the consumer. It can be expressed in various ways, ranging from normal handling and finishing something less traditional: on the door of the store handwritten announcement: "Store buyers are urgently needed!". Maximum respect.
Ambiguity. Casino "Shangri-La" invites its customers the promise of "fresh herbs all year round" and the opportunity to win "half a lemon." Everyone understands that it is behind the green and that for lemons.
Hidden subtext. The slogan "Bee-line": "You only hear your callers." This slogan was the result of constant scandals associated with listening to the secret services of private negotiations. The message was understood. Advertisement "Mercedes", "Let's give it in good hands. Sale of cars. " It feels a subtle hint of what the customer who decides to buy an expensive car, originally a special elite. Very elegantly glossed the sale: "We give ...". Moreover, the machine is equivalent to a living being, like other dogs.
Game start. A striking example - the West German advertising vodka: "Cut out the model from our poster, fold along the dotted lines. Glue bottle model and look at it for 30 minutes. If you do not have any desire to buy, then you are not our customer. "
Psychology. Advertising American charitable foundation. Before boarding the plane passengers met a huge aquarium full of money. The inscription: "Everyone who comes after you, know that you have an extra detail. You do not offer a sacrifice, but ... ".
Warning. This group may include advertising slogans, the purpose is the desire to warn, protect consumers from anything negative. A huge billboard with a picture of a syringe, under which it is written: "In search of a dream find only death." Advertisement on the streets of Washington is a large board on which are painted several animals from elephant to a mouse, from the rear. "Do not quit smoking - all turn away from you!"
Magic name. Advertising slogans that mention a particular celebrity, as a rule, are popular and easily stored, for example: "From our pasta is not fattening, they may have even Pavarotti." List all the features and properties of an advertising slogan is not so easy, but even harder to merge them together in any one utterance. But this should not even aspire to. The most important thing when creating an advertising slogan - remember that any appeal must carry a "charge of thought" in an interesting and intelligible form offering consumers any vygodu.2.3. Artistic techniques sloganistiki
Artistic techniques involving the lower power of a slogan, but a positive effect on his perception and memory consumer. Remembering the slogan increase:
Toothbrush Aquafresh: cleans brilliantly, acting head.
Nescafe Classic. Deep fresh taste.
Great taste! Great start!
Coffee Jockey. Look at life more fun!
Wein: Der Weinbrand von achtzehn Karat.
Berliner Pilsner: Das Bier von hier.
Binding: Dir und mir Binding Bier.
Bommerlunder: Vor dem Bier, nach dem Essen, Bommerlunder nicht vergessen.
Wein: Rein aus Wein. Vollausgereifter Geschmack.
Apfelsaft: Apfelsaft wirkt fabelhaft.
Water freezes at 0 ° C
Reliable appliances exist.
Clogan consists of two parts, constructed using the principle of the syntactic parallelism. The word order in sentences, even deliberate lexical repetition (word proved), suggests to the consumer the idea of ??the existence of only one company, worthy of trust.
Using receiving pun becomes the basis for building advertising washing powder:
Clean - clean Tide.
Admission parallelism - the same syntactic construction of parts of speech - makes a brief and memorable slogan.
There are things that can not be bought.
For everything else, there's Mastercard.
At the heart of the slogan - the antithesis expressed descriptively: a number of things you can not buy (listed value of the material plane) - everything else can be bought, and this will help Mastercard.
Time to eat. There Meller.
The advertising slogan is based on the ambiguity of the word is. Time is - used form of the present tense of the verb to be. There Meller - to the specified value is added to the value of the word "eat". Increment allows to perceive the meaning of promotional items (iris) on a par with the philosophical category of time. Due to the ambiguity of the slogan perception of advertising can be different: it tells the buyer thought that esl «Meller» is as necessary as drinking tea, brush your teeth, take a shower, and so that the consumer is easy to find in a life time to use butterscotch " Meller ».
All in awe of you. Are you from Maybelline.
Using receiving parceling in building this slogan and a chain link between the proposals lead to the intonation in speech allocation of principal. In the first sentence, the pronoun all, in the second - the pronoun help you perceive the movement of thought that is a cause for delight.
Well, where we are.
The slogan is short, energetic, attracts attention. Slogan promises a certain benefit, comfort and reliability. Used transformation known expression There's good where we have to change the values ??on the positive. Logical stress in the original expression - the word is not, in the slogan - on the terms we have, which is perceived to mean "we are, our being." Slogan inspires a positive emotional state. Being outside distractions from the advertised product, it carries a positive outlook in general for the advertised product.
The form and content of an advertising slogan can be analyzed at the sentence level. In drawing up the slogan to consider the type of expression. Exclamatory sentence with a verb in the imperative mood is common in youth advertising goods or consumer goods with low price. When the target audience advertising account for highly educated people, who are asked to technically complex and expensive product, used declarative sentence. Western aid argue that exclamatory sentence with a verb in the imperative mood is really able to push consumers to a particular deystviyu.Glava 3. Analysis of advertising slogans and emotional slogans 3.1.Ratsionalnye
Of those surveyed me slogans about 40% are rational. They advertise cars, home appliances, financial services, medical devices and drugs, promising the consumer the specific, practical applicability favor:
AEG Die Form besticht. Die Technik uberzeugt.
Agfa Technik, die vom Profi kommt.
Amazone Ihr starker Partner fur Land- und Kommunaltechnik.
Bang & Olufsen Technik zum Verlieben.
Bosch Technik furs Leben.
Constructa Moderne Technik - leicht gemacht.
CTT Technik menschlich.
Esso Forschung und Technik, die man tanken kann.
Fleischhauer TVC Professionelle Audio- und Videotechnik.
Gaggia Tradition. Technik. Kompetenz.
Hitachi Mehr Spa? an der Technik.
Honda Qualitat und Technik die begeistert.
Kohler Dachtechnik Qualitat an hochster Stelle!
Nordmende Galaxy Technik, die stimmt - in jedem Detail!
Opel Technik, die begeistert.
Opel Ascona Fahrkultur durch reife Technik.
Opel Rekord Dynamische Technik im Windprofil.
Peugeot SpeedFight 2 Spitzensportler mit Spitzentechnik.
Renault Autotechnik fur den Menschen.
Nissan Micra Vollgepackt mit Technik.
Kreidler Technik in Bewegung.
Jetbag Der Dachkoffer fur alle Falle. Perfekt in Technik und Design!
Honda Ausgewogene Technik: Honda.
Goodyear Technik fur morgen.
Fiat Temperament und Technik.
Brose Technik fur Automobile.
Boge Technik die Sicherheit gibt.
Autohaus Schnitzler Audi Wir haben die Technik, Sie haben den Vorsprung.
Audi Gelassen fahren mit perfekter Technik.
Alfa Romeo Technik der Zukunft. Schon immer.
Deutsche Arzte-Versicherung Finanzen im Ganzen.
Finanzen Karriere fur Ihr Geld.
Finanzen Wissen was passiert, bevor es passiert.
Finanzen Clever Geld verdienen.
Finum Finanzhaus Logik in Finanzen.
FrauenVermogen Damit Frauen ihre Finanzen selbst in die Hand nehmen.
Moneyfinder.de Geld, Vermogen und Finanzen - go for it.
WeGo Wir bringen Ihre Finanzen in Schwung.
medical devices and drugs:
Frubienzym Die meistverwendete Halsmedizin.
Larylin Larylin ist Medizin. gegen Husten.
Activita Gesundheit in der Balance.
5 am Tag Die Gesundheitskampagne mit Biss.
AOK Die Gesundheitskasse.
AOK Fur Ihre Gesundheit machen wir uns stark.
Arend / Wessling Gesundheit ist mehr als nicht krank zu sein.
Aronal / Elmex Spezialisten fur Zahngesundheit.
Bad Heilbrunner Die Kraft der Natur fur Ihre Gesundheit.
Bahn-BKK Zug um Zug Gesundheit.
Bekunis Gute Verdauung ist die Basis fur gute Gesundheit.
Bekunis-Tee Fur Ihre Gesundheit taglich eine Tasse Bekunis-Tee.
Beurer Gesundheit und Wohlbefinden.
Bioluft Wir holen aus der Luft das heraus, was Ihre Gesundheit gefahrdet!
Bionorm Gewicht verlieren, Gesundheit gewinnen.
Doppelherz System Gesundheit mit System.
Dynavit-Trainer Partner der Gesundheit.
Enjoyliving Gesundheit. Entspannung. Wohlbefinden.
Fachapotheken (CH) Gesundheit hat ein neues Zeichen.
Focus Online Gesundheit Wissen, was mir hilft.
Hansal Gesundheit, die schmeckt!
The rest of the considered slogans (about 60%) that advertise alcoholic beverages, cigarettes, jewelry, watches, goods for women, food, are emotional:
Henninger Gerstel Nicht ohne. Aber ohne Alkohol!
Issumer Alkoholfrei Man trinke und staune.
Veltins Malz Schmeckt frisch. Macht frisch. Alkoholfrei, nicht so su? und voller Energie.
Warsteiner Premium alkoholfrei 100% Genuss - 0,0% Alkohol.
Erdinger Alkoholfrei 100% Regeneration fur 100% Leistung.
Paulaner Alkoholfrei Kaum ein Unterschied. Auch im Geschmack. Paulaner Alkoholfrei.
St. Sin No.1 Und die Alkoholfahne ist gegessen.
Suchtpravention Hamburg Alkohol. Irgendwann ist der Spass vorbei.
Anker Mehl (AT) Erst ausprobiert ... dann paketiert.
Binding Dir und mir Binding Bier.
Bommerlunder Vor dem Bier, nach dem Essen, Bommerlunder nicht vergessen!
Carlsberg Wahrscheinlich das beste Bier der Welt.
Dab Aus Liebe zum Bier.
Eichhof (CH) Das ist Bierkultur.
Fohrenburger (AT) Das fabelhafte Bier.
Gatz Gatz. Unser Bier.
Gemeinschaftswerbung Brauereien Ein Bier kommt selten allein.
Giessener Pilsner Frischer Genuss ist unser Bier.
Haake-Beck Das Bier von hier.
Hansa-Pils Eins der Biere, die Dortmund beruhmt gemacht haben.
Holsten Ein packendes Bier.
Jacob Wahrscheinlich das beste Weissbier der Welt!
Kulmbacher Aus der heimlichen Hauptstadt des Bieres.
Licher Licher Bier. Aus dem Herzen der Natur.
Puntigamer (AT) Das bierige Bier.
Stauder Pils Die feine Art, Bier zu brauen. Die feine Art, Bier zu genie?en.
Stuttgarter Hofbrdu Lemon Gold ProBier's.
Weihenstephan Ursprung des Bieres.
Aurelis Schmuck der mir passt!
Christian Bauer Schmuck, der Zeichen setzt.
Dugena Fachgeschafte Ihre Experten fur Uhren, Schmuck und ... gute Ideen!
Fahrner-Schmuck Wieder entzuckt, begluckt ... Fahrner-Schmuck.
Meister Diamantschmuck Moments forever.
Sabona Schmuck mit Funktion.
Seiko Der quarz-genaue Schmuck.
Weiss Goldrichtig fur Schmuck und Uhren.
Wempe Wempe hat den Schmuck von Welt.
Alpina Uhren, die mehr als die Zeit angeben.
Braun Weckuhren So angenehm kann Aufstehen sein.
Chopard Happy Sport Brillant rund um die Uhr.
Citizen Die Uhr, um die man Sie beneidet.
Dugena 444 Automatic Eine Uhr, die einfach zu Ihnen gehort.
Dugena Alpina Dugena-Alpina - die Uhr der Dame, die das Edle liebt.
Eterna Matic Das letzte Wort in Uhren.
Georg Jensen Spangenuhr Die zeitlose Uhr.
Iseco TTC Longlife Die Uhr fur eine kleine Ewigkeit.
Junghans Gute Zeit mit Junghans-Uhren!
Mauthe Famos Die Markenuhr von Weltruf.
Products for Women:
Alpecin Coffein Shampoo Doping fur die Haare.
Bebe Young Care Soft Care Shampoos Einfach schones Haar.
Crisan Die Kur im Shampoo.
Dufipon Shampoon Seidenweiches Haar durch Dufipon.
Glem Das Vorbild des Ei-Shampoos.
Irsa Shampoon Haarwasche ohne Tranen.
Nivea Shampoo Die Pflege, die man sieht, spurt, fuhlt.
Respond Grner Apfel Shampoo Schones Haar, das man am Duft erkennt.
Shamtu Shampoo Shamtu Shampoo bringt Spannkraft ins Haar!
Wella Balsam Shampoo Die balsam-milde Schonheitspflege.
Margaret Astor Wir haben den Lippenstift neu erfunden: Flipstick.
8x4 Deo Seife Dreifach wirksam auf einmal: reinigt - erfrischt und desodoriert.
Atlantik Seife Naturlich stimulierend wie eine Meerwassermassage.
Atlantik Seife Die belebende Frische von Seetang und Meer.
Dalli Das ist die Doppelwirkung von Dalli mit waschaktiver Seife.
Dalli Toiletteseife Dalli macht den Alltag froh.
Fa-Seife Die wilde Frische, die unter die Haut geht.
Kaloderma Seife, wie die Haut sie braucht.
Patina Seife Siehst du ein Ding mit Streifen - denk an Patina-Seifen.
Axe Dry Es ist mehr als ein Deodorant. Es ist ein Antitranspirant.
MUM-Deodorant MUM macht die Manner verruckt!
Palmolive Deodorant (CH) Starke Leistung unter hochster Belastung.
Riar Deodorant-Spray Wird mit jeder Hitze fertig.
Analysis of advertising slogans on the lexical-semantic level
45% slogans contain words and phrases that are in their semantics comparison value (besser, lieber, totaler, schoner):
Linola Lieber sofort Linola.
Uldo Einfach besser backen.
Sanella Damit's noch besser schmeckt.
Schwartau Damit Ihnen Gutes noch besser gelingt.
Palmin Gutes gelingt noch besser mit Palmin.
Mondamin Besser kochen - feiner essen - gesunder leben.
Landgold Kaffee schmeckt mit Sahne besser.
Deutsche See Besser Fisch.
Neuform Natur-gesund und besser leben.
Expressiveness slogan is enhanced if it uses a pun:
Kult Seife Die kultivierte Seife.
Uhr-Kraft Die Zeit der Zeit ...
Remington Uhren bieten mehr als Zeit.
Iseco TTC Longlife Die Uhr fur eine kleine Ewigkeit.
Alpina Uhren, die mehr als die Zeit angeben.
Binding Dir und mir Binding Bier.
Auto Focus Automobile Lebensart.
Agfa Optima Vollautomatik fur Anspruchsvolle.
Hohes C Konzentrierte Gesundheit.
Gum Gesundheit beginnt im Mund!
Doppelherz System Gesundheit mit System.
Bionorm Gewicht verlieren, Gesundheit gewinnen.
Beneful Voller Gesundheit. Voller Geschmack.
Bahn-BKK Zug um Zug Gesundheit.
Arend / Wessling Gesundheit ist mehr als nicht krank zu sein.
Desenio Finanzen im besten Alter.
Ospelt Haustechnik (LI) Wir sind im Element. Im Element Holz, Wasser, Luft und Feuer.
Opel Ascona Fahrkultur durch reife Technik.
MHZ Fantasie und Technik rund ums Fenster.
Analysis of advertising slogans on the syntactic level
In accordance with the differences in language design in the material quite clearly distinguished 3 groups of advertising slogans:
Joghurt So erfrischend kann Gesundheit schmecken.
Autohaus Schnitzler Audi Wir haben die Technik, Sie haben den Vorsprung.
Autoscout24 Wer scoutet, der findet.
Blaupunkt Man wird nicht ohne Grund die Nummer 1 in Deutschlands Automobilen.
Dab Das Bier von Weltruf.
Herforder Pils Besser kann ein Bier nicht sein.
Junghans Gute Zeit mit Junghans-Uhren!
Seiko Es ist Ihre Uhr, die aussagt, wer Sie sind.
65% of surveyed slogans touting youth goods or consumer goods with low price, are exclamatory sentences with the verb in the imperative:
Schauma Vital-Shampoo Wascht Leben ins Haar!
Gmyrek Setzt der Wurst die Krone auf!
CMA Fleisch. Koch mit!
Saupiquet Iss' was besseres!
For 35% of advertisers advertising slogans used declarative sentences. The target audience of the advertising account for highly educated people, who are asked to technically complex and expensive product:
Meister Diamantschmuck Moments forever.
Chopard Happy Sport Brillant rund um die Uhr.
Niessing A quiet clock in a troubled time.
Rolex GMT-Master The 24-hour clock for a 24-hour world.
Tissot Tissot satisfies your desire for a good Swiss clock!
Schwarzkopf special shampoos because each hair is different!
Из приведенных выше примеров видно, что и немецкий, и русский языки богаты разнообразными средствами и способами создания определенной формы и содержания рекламного слогана.
В рекламе на обоих языках присутствуют одни и те же группы рекламных слоганов: рациональные и эмоциональные слоганы, слоганы, построенные с использованием каламбура, слоганы, содержащие слова со значением сравнения в своей семантике. В русско- и немецкоязычной рекламе встречаются слоганы-советы, слоганы-суждения, слоганы-презентации и используются повествовательные и восклицательные предложения.Заключение
Можно сказать, что поставленные в начале исследования задачи достигнуты.
Реклама - социокультурный феномен современности. До сих пор у исследователей возникает вопрос, что собственно считать рекламой. По мнению большинства ученных, любой вид рекламы должен удовлетворять четырем основным требованиям: являться оплаченной формой коммуникации, источник его финансирования должен быть известен, распространяться с помощью средств массовой информации, должен быть предназначен определенной группе населения, т.е. являться явлением массовой коммуникации. Классификация рекламы может идти по нескольким основаниям, наибольшие затруднения возникают при классификации рекламы по средствам передачи.
Основной целью рекламы является продвижение товара на рынке товаров и услуг. Я выделила следующие функции рекламы: экономическую функцию, информационную функцию, коммуникативную и эстетическую функции. Цель рекламы достигается с помощью ее эффектов: эффектом размышления, эффектом доверия, эффектом полемики, эффектом прямого разговора, эффектом присутствия, эффектом постепенного усиления, эффектом края, эффектом обманутого ожидания.
Текст является неотъемлемой частью большинства рекламных сообщений. Он как, правило, является главным элементом, раскрывающим основное содержание рекламного сообщения. Ввиду целевых установок, определяющих его структуру, рекламный текст, с одной стороны, является особым видом текста, однако, с другой стороны, в рекламных целях используются почти все публицистические жанры. Важное требование, предъявляемое к рекламным текстам - максимум информации при минимуме слов. Рекламный текст состоит из четырех основных элементов, которые почти всегда используются в рекламе: заголовок, подзаголовок, основной текст, рекламный слоган. Рекламный слоган - это краткая запоминающаяся фраза, которая передает в яркой, образной форме основную идею рекламной кампании. Нередко весь рекламный текст состоит из рекламируемого собственного имени и сопровождающего его слогана.
Достижение цели привлечения внимания в слогане осуществляется разными средствами: использованием структурных особенностей предложения, фонетико-интонационных, графических средств, а также семантико-стилистического свойства слов. Центральное место среди них должно занимать смысловое звено.
Форма и содержание рекламного слогана различаются в зависимости от того, какие языковые подсистемы вовлечены в его создание. Лексико-семантический анализ рекламных слоганов, позволяет прийти к выводу о томЮ что самыми многочисленными оказались слоганы, содержащте слова со значением сравнения в своей семантике.
При анализе синтаксической структуры выяснилось, что доминируют восклицательные предложения, особенно часто встречаются восклицательные предложения с глаголом в повелительном наклонении.
Слоганы включают информативную и эмоциональную составляющие, которые нередко совмещаются. Информативные слоганы представляют собой прямую характеристику товара, а выраженная в слоганах рациональная информация затрагивает разнообразные характеристики товара: тип рекламного объекта, отличительное качество товара, адресата продукции, эффективность использования рекламируемого товара.
Ввиду их б?льшей информативности двумя основными частотными группами лексем рекламного слогана в исследованном материале являются имена существительные (26%) и глаголы (14%). Широк спектр лексических средств создания экспрессии: от использования стилистически нейтральных слов до разговорной лексики. Однако наибольшую частотную группу (79%) составляет стилистически нейтральная лексика, что, по моему мнению, может объясняться тем фактом, что рекламный текст ориентирован в первую очередь на среднестатистического обывателя. Одним из характерных лексических средств в рекламном тексте-слогане являются слова- "пустышки" ведущие к имплицитному обману потребителя.
Созданию экспрессивного эффекта рекламного слогана служит также использование структурных особенностей предложения. Наибольшую частотную группу (26%) в исследованном мной материале составили рекламные слоганы - простые предложение, что объясняется экономическим аспектом: стремлением рекламного текста к краткости. В рекламе прослеживается тенденция приблизить изложение к устно-разговорной речи. Стилизация под разговорную речь приводит к использованию в слогане-тексте парцеллированных конструкций.
Используя большой арсенал лексических и синтаксических средств усиления экспрессивного воздействия, современный немецкоязычный рекламный слоган выполняет одну из важных функций рекламного текста - обращает внимание потенциального покупателя на саму рекламу, что может вызвать в дальнейшем интерес уже к товару.Список литературы
Арефьева Т.Н. Аргументация в рекламном тексте // актуальные проблемы романистики: Язык. Общество. Культура. - Саратов, 1999. С. 15-16.
Верещагин Е. М., Костомаров В. Г. Язык и культура. Лингвострановедение в преподавании русского языка как иностранного. - М.., 1990
Восприятие рекламы (психофизиологический аспект) // Материалы докладов сообщений молодых ученых в рамках "Дней науки-99» .- Краснодар. - 1999th
Гермогенова Л.Ю. Эффективная реклама в России. Практика и рекомендации. - М.., 1994
Горлатов А.М. Функциональный стиль рекламы современного немецкого языка. - Мн 2002.
Гулыга Е.В. Теория сложноподчиненного предложения в современном немецком языке. М.., 1971
Дейян А .: Реклама. - М.., 1993
Заботкина В.И. Новая лексика современного английского языка. - М.., 1989
Залевская А. А. Понимание текста: психолингвистический подход. - Калинин., 1988
Иванчикова Е.А. Парцеллированные конструкции в современном русском языке .// Морфология и синтаксис современного русского языка. Русский язык и советское общество. М.., 1968
Историко-культурный анализ российской рекламы конца ХХ века // Язык культуры и культура языка. - Тюмень., 2001
К вопросу о локальном и глобальном подходе в рекламных коммуникациях // Открытый институт региональных социальных исследований. Научные труды. - Краснодар., 2001
К проблеме детерминантов рекламных коммуникаций // Тезисы XXXVII научной конференции студентов и молодых ученых вузов Юга России. - Краснодар., 2000
Картон Г. Эффективная реклама. - М.., 1991
Китайгородская М.В., Розен Н.Н. Русский язык конца ХХ столетия. - М.., 1998
Коньков В.И. Рекламные тексты нетрадиционного типа., 1996
Кохтев Н.Н. Десять эффектов рекламы., 1991
Кохтев Н.Н. Реклама: искусство слова. Рекомендации для составителей рекламных текстов, М.., 1997
Кохтев Н.Н., Розенталь Д.Э. Слово в рекламе. - М. 1978th
Кромптон А. Мастерская рекламного текста. - М., 1995. - и - М.., 1998
Кузьмина П.Е. Парцелляция как средство достижения экспрессивности высказывания. (На материале английской и американской литературы 20 века) // Стилистика текста. Языковые средства экспрессивности текста Уфа ..-., 1989
Лисиченко Р.П. Интонационные характеристики парцелляции в современном немецком языке. Автореферат диссертации на соискание ученой степени кандидата филологических наук. М.., 1972
Мокшанцев Р.И. Психология рекламы: Учеб. пособие / Науч. Ред. М.В.Удальцова.- М.: ИНФРА-Новосибирск: Сибирское соглашение, 2000.-230с.
Новиков А. Метафизика рекламы: восстание вещей .// Журналист, № 3-4, С. 38-41.
Панкратов Ф.Г., Баженов Ю.К., Серегина Т.К., Шахурин В.Г. Рекламная деятельность: Учебник для студентов высших учебных заведений: 3-е изд. - М.., 2001
Проблемы межкультурных дифференциаций в рекламных коммуникациях // Будущее науки в руках молодых. Наука Кубани. - Краснодар, 2000.- вып. №. 5
Регулятивная роль культуры в процессе рекламных коммуникаций // Проблемы национальной культуры на рубеже тысячелетий: поиски и решения. Научно-теоретическая конференция. Тезисы докладов. - Нальчик., 2001
Реклама в процессе социализации // Человек в информационном пространстве цивилизации: культура, религия, образование. (Международная научная конференция Краснодар-Новороссийск). Тезисы докладов. - Краснодар-Новороссийск., 2000
Реклама в современном социокультурном пространстве // Первые Кайгородовские чтения: Материалы науч.-практ. конф. / КГУКИ. Краснодар., 2000
Реклама как особый вид социальной коммуникации // Российская культура глазами молодых ученых. Научно-теоретическая конференция. Материалы докладов. - Краснодар., 2001
Розенталь Д.Э., Кохтев Н.Н. Язык рекламных текстов. - М.., 1981
Романова Т.Н. Слоганы в языке современной рекламы // Лингвистика, 2001. - №3.
Смурова М. Искусство для продажи // Профессия - журналист. - 2000. - №2.
Стриженко А.А. Прагматическая ориентация рекламы .// Прагматические аспекты функционирования языка. - Барнаул., 1983
Стриженко А.А. Прагматическая ориентация рекламы .// Прагматические аспекты функционирования языка. - Барнаул., 1983
Тропина Н. И. Глагол как средство речевого воздействия.- М.., 1989
Федорова М.А., Замятина С.Н. Функции парцеллированных конструкций в рекламе, ТюмГУ, 20
Авіація і космонавтика
© 8ref.com - українські реферати