Manipulative technologies in political advertising and propaganda - Advertising


Prepared by Anton Emelyanov, fourth year, a group of SR - 402 (PR)

Peoples' Friendship University, Institute of World Economy and Business

Moscow 2007Vvedenie

There are many definitions of propaganda, a set of concepts associated with it. The reason is that propaganda - funds that can be replicated on these or other purposes. In the most general sense of the propaganda is to familiarize the masses with something to spread anything. [1] More specifically, a system of activities aimed at the dissemination of knowledge, artistic values ??and other information to form certain opinions, ideas, emotional states, as well as to influence the behavior of people in society.

Dr. Joseph Goebbels, a recognized classic of totalitarian propaganda, gave her the following definition: "Propaganda - a policy instrument and the power to control society. The task of propaganda is comprehensive coverage of human activities in such a way that the environment of the individual absorbed in ideology of the Nazi movement "[2]. Reich Minister spoke about the basic principles of propaganda: "The secret of propaganda is to introduce the idea in people's minds, unbeknownst to implement them. Of course, promotion is the goal, but the goal is to be so skillfully masked to the people to whom it affects, did not notice anything "[3]. Already these two quotes is easy to characterize the propaganda carried out on the territory of Nazi Germany and the Nazi special propaganda, broadcast on foreign gosudarstva.Aktualnost topics:

In today's world comes relentless struggle for markets, sources of energy and the expansion of political influence. In this arena face the interests of states, corporations and ultimately - of individuals. This confrontation is an important propaganda tool, and often effective weapon to achieve the objectives pursued. Therefore, the study of the experience of conducting propaganda in Nazi Germany on the eve of and during World War II, that is, at a time when it was most needed, and became, in essence, necessaries, is aktualnym.Stepen scrutiny of the problem:

At present, the technique of propaganda of the period studied enough. In public literature presents works full systematizing all the variety of forms of influence inherent in the promotion of the time. There are only a few examples of the use of methods of Goebbels propaganda as illustrative material, placed in the current research, dedicated to the related topics. [3, 7, 10] subject of study:

This paper investigates the manipulative techniques of Nazi political propaganda, as well as specific examples is determined by the effectiveness of their impact on the target auditorii.Obekt research:

The evolution of consciousness of German society in terms of the hard impact of Nazi propaganda from liberalism of the Weimar Republic to the aggressive nationalism of the Third Reich in the prewar gody.Novizna research:

At present, formed the most favorable conditions for carrying out such studies: the researcher does not prevail over the excessive load ideologized, to the study of many filmed strict taboos that existed in previous years. And, fortunately, still alive witnesses of the events of those years, keep a clear mind and ready to provide reliable information. Finally, this study is entirely devoted to the theme of Nazi propaganda, in contrast to previous work, where she was vtorostepennoy.Tsel research:

Study of methods of propaganda, held in Nazi Germany the period 1919 - 1945's, their analysis to the use of techniques in modern advertising and PR tehnologiyah.Zadachi research:

To achieve these goals was matched material on research, and made a content analysis of selected studies istochnikov.Gipoteza:

It is possible that some effective techniques of propaganda study period it is advisable to integrate into modern technology and advertising PR.Osnovnye sources used:

For this work were selected sources published directly in the analyzed time period and materials published in recent years, which is reflected in the modern view on a particular topic. These include the "bible" of National Socialism Mein Kamf, E. Bramstedt book "Joseph Goebbels. Mefistofele grins from the past ", as well as personal archives avtora.Metody research:

The main method of this study is a content analysis of a variety of sources containing information on raboty.Aprobatsiya research:

Materials which have made this work were presented at seminars in the People's Friendship University in the period 2005 - 2007's, as well as the First Scientific and Practical Conference IMEB RUDN "Advertising vector 2007: the challenges of globalization."

Chapter 1.

Little evil genius. He [Goebbels] was able to present a convincing way, in fact, miserable idea that they became fanatically believe a whole nation.

Anton EmelyanovSredstva impact of Nazi ideology on German society.

According to the Nazi concept glyayhshaltung (Gleichschaltung), all spheres of German society were subordinated to the interests of the National Socialist regime. The essence of propaganda in these conditions, Goebbels was formulated in the following way: "Propaganda - a policy instrument and the power to control society. The task of propaganda is comprehensive coverage of human activities in such a way that the environment of the individual absorbed in ideology of the Nazi movement "[4]. It was he who turned the political rallies and meetings in the lush entertainment events, carnivals with music, flags and parades, which was introduced into people's minds the idea that Hitler is a superman, messiah, designed to save Germany. From the pen of Goebbels came a lot of slogans publicized across the country: "Adolf Hitler - a victory!", "One nation, one country, one Fuhrer!", "To blame the Jews!", "The word 'culture' I I want to grab the gun! "and so on. d.

Goebbels' task was to keep people in a constant state of nervous excitement, and in this he is very successful. Reich Minister of Propaganda subdued all spheres of ideological influence on the consciousness of the masses - the press, radio, literature, music, film, theater, visual arts. Under his command were about a thousand official propagandists.


Even before he came to power Hitler regarded the press as one of the most powerful weapons in the struggle for the establishment of the Nazi regime in Germany and personal dictatorship. Since becoming chancellor, he announced the press of the Third Reich object glyayhshaltung policy. All opposition to the Nazi regime publications were banned. Press law, adopted October 4, 1933, declared in effect "ethnic cleansing" of journalism. Newspaper expelled liberal person, as well as editors and journalists of Jewish origin. The rest had to be tested for "racial purity" and prove to obtain a work permit, they are not married to Jews. They were required loyalty to the Nazi regime.

An important step was the Nazi government expropriation of newspapers and magazines owned by Jews. The owners of the Jews came under pressure in order to force them to sell their publications. In case of failure of their newspapers were banned for a few days, then weeks, as long as they do not appear on the verge of ruin. Publishing house Ullshteyna, owner-Jew, was bought by the Nazi publishing house Eher Verlag. Among the newspapers acquired Max Amann, was famous, founded in 1703, the liberal newspaper "Vossische Zeitung". "Berliner Tageblatt" managed to hold out until 1937. Since the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Germany was interested to have an impact on world public opinion and to present the Nazi regime in a favorable light, Goebbels allowed to retain some independence is widely known in the world of newspaper "Frankfurter Zeitung". However, the entire staff of Jewish origin was fired from the newspaper. [5]

Once under the exclusive control of the Nazis, many newspapers in the absence of competition initially flourished. Acquired NSDAP in the early years of the Nazi movement "Volkischer Beobachter" has become the most significant official newspaper of the Third Reich. It was headed by the chief theoretician of National Socialism Alfred Rosenberg. She went to Munich as the morning daily newspaper and spread across the country in huge circulations. The quality of its materials is significantly lower than the level of journalism made during the period of the Weimar Republic. In Berlin, Goebbels began to publish his own newspaper "Angrif." Parasitic on the high reputation of the former German press abroad, Goebbels kept the name, structure and general appearance of some old newspapers. At the same time, he was careful to ensure that their content is strictly in line with the National Socialist political line. Editor of the old Berlin newspaper "Brzen Zeitung" ("Exchange Newspaper"), he appointed Hitler's personal adviser on economic and financial issues Walther Funk. Goebbels exercised vigilant control of more than 3600 newspapers and hundreds of magazines in Germany. Every morning he took the editors of daily newspapers and correspondents in Berlin newsroom from other cities and gave them clear instructions what to pay attention to the news of the day. Similar instructions he sent by telegraph or mail a small newspaper in the province. Goebbels demanded of journalists to act strictly in accordance with the party line, and, above all, never to doubt the word of the Fuhrer. They were expected to praise Hitler and demonstration of sympathy for the members of the party leadership indicated by the Ministry of Propaganda. Intermediary between the Office of Goebbels and the press became a veteran journalist and radio commentator Hans Fritzsche, appointed in 1937 by the German chief spokesman.

Goebbels showed particular interest in relation to foreign correspondents working in Berlin. In order to create a favorable image of the Nazi regime in the foreign press, he did not hesitate to direct or veiled bribery: singled out foreign correspondents luxury apartments, cars, generously treated them during the reception hosted by entertainment and sightseeing trips.

The majority of the German population is not interested in unimpressive Nazi media. In the period from 1933 to 1937, the number of newspapers decreased from 3607 to 2671. The official newspapers such as "Volkischer Beobachter" or "Angrif", despite the solid financial support, also lost readers, very soon realized that the Third Reich there is no independent press [6].


Shortly after Hitler came to power, he has provided to the Minister of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda Goebbels full control over the work of the German radio stations. Stating that the spoken word has on people a greater impact than print, Goebbels chose radio as the primary instruments of Nazi propaganda. "What the press was in the nineteenth century, will be broadcast in the twentieth," - said Goebbels.

During the period of the Weimar Republic, as in most of Europe, the German public broadcasting was. In March 1933 Goebbels reassigned national radio, moving it from the Main Post Office in the Ministry of Propaganda. From now until the end of the Third Reich German work stations to the smallest detail was controlled personally by Goebbels and his staff. At the head of the Imperial radiopalaty, which became part of the Ministry of Propaganda on the Rights of control, he put Euzhena Hadamovskogo. August 16, 1933 Hadamovsky issued an order stating: "We National Socialists are obliged to show enough dynamism and enthusiasm to instantly conquer Germany and the rest of the world. Parteigenosse Dr. Goebbels charged me 13 July 1933 to clear the German broadcasting from the influence of the opponents of our business. Now I can report that this work has been done completely "[7].

Day and night radio praising the Fuhrer of Germany, presenting it as a national treasure, an example of the Nazi way of life, an extraordinary patriotism and nationalism, was told about the greatest challenges facing the Germans. Every owner of a radio was obliged to pay for it monthly as a duty 2 Reichsmark, which went to the needs of the Ministry of Propaganda. [8] German broadcasting also served as a propaganda tool to foreign countries. Care Goebbels was to make a favorable impression of the Nazi regime to foreign students. In 1933 it was approved by the five-year program broadcasting abroad. Shortwave from Berlin, Dresden and Munich were radio broadcasts of opera performances, symphony concerts were transferred from Leipzig. These transmission artfully intertwined Nazi propaganda. Broadcasting to foreign countries was carried out specifically by the radio station on the Alsace-Lorraine worked as a radio station in Frankfurt, Belgium to broadcast from Cologne to Denmark from Hamburg and Bremen, Czechoslovakia from Breslau and Gleiwitz, to Austria from Munich. Broadcast to the rest of the country was carried out around the clock in twelve languages ??of the huge radio studio in Seesen.

After the Second World War Office Goebbels was faced with serious problems related to the radio. Many Germans who pretty tired of boring Nazi propaganda and always distorted news, prefers to listen to the British or Soviet radio to find out the true picture of events. Listening to foreign radio stations was considered a betrayal and severely punished: only for the first year of the war more than 1,500 Germans were sent to concentration camps, prisons or correctional work [9]. In 1942, the former head of Press Propaganda Ministry Hans Fritzsche was withdrawn from the Eastern Front to lead the department of broadcasting. "Broadcasting should reach everyone, or it does not reach anyone," - said Fritsche.

At the end of the war, Soviet specialists have developed a method for simultaneous broadcast on frequencies used in Germany, which allowed to invade the German radio transmission. Listeners in Germany unexpectedly among transmission could hear the excited cries of "lie!", And then followed by a short "a truthful message" about this or that event. And, often mimic the voice of Hitler or Goebbels. At such times, the staff was forced to interrupt radio transmission, and in the air sounded patriotic music. Particular impact on trainees rendered Soviet radio transmission in which the names were read German war criminals.


After the Nazis came to power, German literature has suffered the most, rather than the other arts. Germany left, voluntarily or involuntarily, and more than 250 German writers, poets, literary critics. Among them were Thomas and Henry Manna, Erich Maria Remarque, Lion Feuchtwanger, Arnold Zweig, Ernst Toller, Franz Werfel, Jakob Wassermann, Bruno Frank, Stefan George, Bertolt Brecht and many others.

Creative level of the majority of the remaining German writers was low, and those who had the talent, or moved away from the serious contemporary or completely silent. Gerhard Hauptmann wrote the autobiographical novel "The adventure of my youth" (1937), a dramatic tetralogy based on the story of the Greek legend of Atreus (1941-44) and the poem "The Great Dream", where in allegorical form expressed disapproval of the Nazi regime. Also remaining in Germany Hans Fallada, Kellerman, Ricarda Huch practically ceased to take part in the literary life of the country. Some talented writers such as Ernst Junger, the Nazi authorities still managed to win over.

May 10, 1933 at the initiative of the Minister of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda Joseph Goebbels Nazi grand event was organized book burning. On the territory of almost all German universities in the fires were flying works of prominent German and foreign writers and thinkers. Fire works were devoted to Thomas and Heinrich Mann, Lion Feuchtwanger, Arnold Zweig, Erich Remarque, Bertolt Brecht, Emile Zola, Proust, Henri Barbusse, Upton Sinclair, Jack London, HG Wells, Arthur Schnitzler, Leo Tolstoy, Maxim Gorky, the works of Marx , Einstein, Bohr, Freud and many others. During the burning of books made Goebbels: "The spirit of the German people will express themselves with renewed vigor. These fires not only illuminate the end of the old era, they also light up, and a new era "[10].

Ideological control of the literary process in the Third Reich was assigned to the 8th Department of the Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda (censorship), in which the decree of 22 September 1933 was created Reichskulturkammer, which included as podpalaty Imperial Chamber literature. By 1939 it managing to completely subjugate the 2500 work of publishers, editors and printers, and 23,000 bookstores. About 3,000 writers in different directions were required to register with the Imperial House of literature, which in 1935 led by playwright Hans Jost. Did not take place at the House of Writers exempted from the prohibition on trade. Was established 50 annual national awards for literature. In the prewar period Reichskulturkammer controlled about 1 million books in the sale, and more than 20 thousand annually produced publications.

Propaganda Ministry has established its own new standards of German literature. Special instructions prescribed writers work in 4 genres:

"Frontline prose (Fronterlebnis) - designed to chant the front-line brotherhood and romanticism of war;

"Party Literature" - works that reflect the Nazi ideology;

"The patriotic prose (Heimatroman) - works, imbued with the national colors, with an emphasis on German folklore, mystical incomprehensibility of the German spirit, nationalism and populism;

"Ethnological (race) prose (Rassenkunde) - the exaltation of the Nordic race, its traditions and its contribution to world civilization, biological superiority of Aryans over other inferior peoples.

In the country there was a lot of writers who have agreed to work in these genres. Werner Bumelburg sentimental novels composed of front-line partnership. Agnes Mgel, novelist and poet, has dedicated itself to the genre of the provincial "rural" literature. Rudolf Binding and von Munchausen Brris composed epic poems about chivalry and masculine virtues.

Among the writers who put their creativity to the service of the Nazi regime, there were many talented and capable authors. Popular writer of the Third Reich was Hans Grimm, whose novel "A people without space" has been widely used by Nazi propaganda and reprinted several times. No less capable of Gottfried Benn defended the aesthetic side of the Nazi nihilism, when he saw it in the National Socialist movement "flow hereditary life-affirming energy." When Benn has revised its attitude to Nazism, he was expelled from the Imperial Chamber of literature, and his works have stopped typing.

A small number are writers and poets who dared to criticize his work in Nazism. Writers such as Gunther Weisenborn Albrecht Haushofer, or (author of "Moabit Sonnets") were persecuted authorities.

In general, the period of Nazi rule dealt a heavy blow to the German literature, and certainly talented works were produced only in the environment of expatriate writers.


Germany's contribution to international music in the past, has won wide acclaim. Many outstanding masters of the XVIII century were Germans. German Lied (Song to the German word) acquired almost as important as the symphony. Three greatest German composer of the early XIX century - Mendelssohn, Schumann and Richard Wagner - had a tremendous influence on the musical world. At the end of the XIX century by Johannes Brahms created a wonderful symphony. XX century has brought radical changes in the music associated with the name in Berlin Austrian composer Schoenberg.

Nazi authorities encouraged the execution of the works of Wagner, because Hitler was a fanatical supporter of his work. Works of Meyerbeer and Mendelssohn were banned because of Jewish origin of these composers. German orchestras were forbidden to perform the music of Paul Hindemith, a leading national contemporary composer who has won international recognition and to experiment with new forms of harmonious series. Fan of Wagner's Hitler considered works of Hindemith decadent and demanded to ban them in concert. Immediately after the Nazis came to power began expulsion from the symphony orchestras and opera ensembles of musicians-Jews, many of whom were forced to leave the country. Among the musicians who left Germany was Otto Klemperer, great conductor, performer of Mahler, head of the Berlin Opera Orchestra. Cultural life has been enriched by many countries as a result of the outcome of fear for their lives or do not wish to accept the Nazi regime musicians-Jews.

Some of the important figures of the music world in Germany, in contrast to the more politicized writers do decide to stay in the country. Part of them was completely gone in his own work, while the others agreed to cooperate with the regime. The latter do not feel any pressure from the Nazi authorities and continued their activities with official permission. Wilhelm Fyurtvengler, one of the greatest conductors of the XX century, made peace with the Nazis. For a while he was in disgrace, because hotly defended Hindemith banned, but nevertheless, he retained his post at the Berlin Philharmonic and the National Opera. Richard Strauss, one of the leading composers of the world, stayed in the Third Reich, and at one time headed the Imperial Music Bureau, a subordinate of Goebbels's Ministry of Propaganda. Prominent German pianist Walter Gieseking received personally from Goebbels permission to perform live abroad. Symphony concerts in Germany attracted the attention of the public in all the years of the Third Reich. Basically performs classical music, works of German composers of the XIX century. Until 1944 music festivals devoted to the works of Wagner in Bayreuth, where as guests of honor attended by Hitler and other party functionaries. [11]


After the Nazis came to power, the German cinema, which received worldwide recognition before thanks to the originality and talent of German actors and directors, has become an integral part of the program glyayhshaltung - subordination of all spheres of life in Germany Nazi ideology. "I want to use cinema as a propaganda tool," - said Goebbels, Hitler ordered that the cinematography control at all stages - from production to hire. The first step of the authorities was to cleanse the production and creative film making from racially alien elements - persons of Jewish nationality. This is the reason that many filmmakers Germany were forced to leave the country. Among them were directors Fritz Lang, William Dieterle, Ernst Lubitsh, composers to create music for films, Kurt Weill, Friedrich Hollander, Hans Eisler, Misha Shpolyanskaya actors Fritz Kortner, Conrad Veidt, Elisabeth Bergner, Marlene Dietrich, Madi and many Christiansen other [12].

Actress Brigitte Helm was accused of racial contamination of the nation on the grounds that she was married to a Jew. Popular actor Leo Reus fled to Vienna, where he changed his Jewish appearance, specializing in Aryan roles. Beautiful German actress Renate Muller committed suicide, unable to bear the harassment of Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels [13]. All Germany was outraged incident that occurred in 1940 with the most popular film actor Joachim Gottschalk country. Being married to a Jewish woman, the actor refused to comply with the requirements of the authorities to divorce his wife and leave the child. Accusing the wife of the actor in the racial inferiority, the Gestapo gave the couple one day to leave the country. Refusing to emigrate, the couple committed suicide. After the incident, the German film studios were close to mutiny.

Some figures Cinematography nevertheless began to collaborate with the Nazi regime. In Germany were working actors Emil Jannings, Heinrich Georg Werner Krauss, Gustav Gryundgens, actress Lil Dagover, Pola Negri, Anny Ondra.

Level of creativity to create films fell sharply in the first period of Nazi rule. Basically puts movies propaganda purposes: "The fierce fighter CA" (1933, Bavarian Film Studio) glorifying the exploits of stormtroopers with minor actor and director; Hitlerjunge Quex, which tells about the fate of the victim at the hands of the Communists convinced Nazi Herbert Norkus, whose parents were communists; "Hans Vestmar" (1933) - a cinematic biography of Horst Wessel, was elevated to the rank of Nazi propaganda iconic symbols of the Third Reich. Nazi authorities staged in Berlin and other German cities, mass viewing these films. However, apart from organized columns of stormtroopers marching in cinemas, rest of the public similar films ignored.

Nazi control over the film industry reached its peak in 1934-35. April 25, 1935 in Berlin International Film Festival opened, which brought together more than two thousand delegates from 40 countries. At this festival was the official premiere of Leni Riefenstahl "Triumph of the Will" [14].

This woman is perhaps the only German filmmakers of the time was able to show the world that the real art - beautiful and self-sufficient, even though in some socio-political and historical conditions it exists. "Triumph of the Will (Triumph des Willens) one of the greatest masterpieces in the history of documentary cinema. For a long time persecuted because of pronounced Nazi propaganda. It shows the Nazi Party Congress in Nuremberg in September 1934, speech Hitler, Goebbels and other Nazi ideology. However, the artistic value of the film is undeniable. Expertly mounted tape was a revolution in the field of engineering surveys. Riefenstahl used 30 cameras and 120 assistants. As a result, the whole world saw the sinister splendor fascist billboards: thousands of parades, torchlight processions, slender rows of soldiers, forming a giant swastika in the march, red and black banners ...

Adolf Hitler described the main task of the Nazi art: "The real art should bear the imprint of beauty. All that is great - it is right and natural. All that is right and natural - it is beautiful. Our task - to reveal this beauty! ". And, although she later Riefenstahl persistently denied their relationship with the official Nazi art, describing it as kitsch, it is not just embodied in the film fascist style - she willingly or unwillingly was one of the founders of this style. This is evidenced by the numerous awards received it personally from the hands of Reich Propaganda Joseph Goebbels, the name of one of them - "For outstanding contribution to German art and artistic expression of the image of the Fuhrer."

By 1937 the German film industry was virtually nationalized. In 1938 came another significant documentary - "Olympia" (directed by L. Riefenstahl), the chronicle of the 1936 Olympics. [15] In 1939 began a series of anti-Semitic films, "Rothschild in Waterloo" (1940), "The Jew Suess" (1940) and others. (See. Annex)

In the early years of World War II Nazi films praised triumphant feats Wehrmacht soldier, in the form of presenting okarikaturennom opponent as weak, vile and cowardly. German newsreel daily reports were presented by the public to win the fronts. Since 1943 began to change the tone of films - required to support the morale of the army and the nation. After the end of the war in Berlin studio was destroyed by Allied bombing, film studios moved to Amsterdam, Budapest and Rome.

In the entire history of the Third Reich (1933-45) in Germany was released in 1363 feature films. All of these films, as well as short films, news and documentaries, to the general demonstration necessarily viewed Propaganda Ministry. Only a small part of them was selected for propaganda purposes. Audience theater during the war greatly reduced.


During the period of the Weimar Republic (1919-1933), German playwrights, directors and actors, thanks to its creative energy, have made an enormous contribution to the development of various genres of theater art, from tragedy to comedy. All kinds of theatrical art, from classic to radical expressionism, provided an unprecedented impact on the audience. In many theaters in Germany were successfully plays a complex and contradictory destiny of man, about the bright side of human nature. The whole world is laughing at smashing satirical plays Carl Zuckmayer "Captain Kopenick", which was first staged in Germany in 1931, and then translated into many languages ??and staged in many countries. The establishment of the Nazi regime in 1933 led to a sharp decline of the German theater. The first step in the Nazi authorities was the expulsion of all Jews theatrical environment - producers, directors and actors, many of whom have successfully worked in film and theater.

The famous German director Max Reinhardt, who led the Deutsches Theater in Berlin, was forced to leave Germany. Bavarian playwright Bertolt Brecht neo-realists, whose epic dramas were extremely popular in the Weimar Republic, left home and went to Denmark. Later, in the United States, Brecht wrote several anti-Nazi plays, including "Arturo Uri", which exposes the propaganda tactics used by Hitler to achieve political power, and "The Private Lives of Master Race" in which he predicted the imminent and inevitable collapse the Nazi regime. Another emigrant playwright Ernst Toller, wrote the play "Pastor Hall," a drama about a German priest who defied Hitler's brownshirts. The play "Professor Mamlon" Friedrich Wolf, set in New York in 1937, tells the story of Jewish doctor, who slandered, put-upon and deprived of their work, committed suicide [16].

These pieces created outside the Third Reich outstanding playwrights emigrants, picture portrayed a murderous Nazi terror and loss of moral and ethical core artists to stay in Germany and who were unable to resist the Nazi regime. The authorities of the Third Reich tried by any means to retain the interest of the public, accustomed to high quality theatrical productions. Goebbels appointed Hans Jost, head of the Imperial Chamber Theatre, which was under the control of the Ministry of Propaganda. Drama Jost "Schlageter", set in 1933, was written in honor of Albert Leo Schlageter, the Nazi "martyr", to resist the French occupation of the Rhineland and was killed in 1923. The dedication of the play ("Written for Adolf Hitler, with reverent awe and constant devotion") Jost attracted the attention of the Fuhrer and provided him with a strong position among the Nazi elite. In his theatrical works Yost had two objectives. The first - "German must be born in blood and in fact in Germanism." The second - "theater is the latest educational opportunities to save the German nation from complete materialism extremely realistic world." Yost set the tone for a new national drama, repeating a line from his boss Goebbels: "The word 'culture' I want to grab the gun!"

Only a talented playwright, who remained in Germany the entire period of the Third Reich, whose plays were in many theaters, was Gerhard Hauptmann. This gifted author made peace with the Nazi authorities, and his plays have been approved for productions. In addition, various theaters implemented good setting of Goethe, Schiller and Shakespeare. Nazi censors were not affected by the drama Bernard Shaw, as they ridiculed the aristocracy and democracy. The German public, Crave Entertainment, sympathetic to these classics, popular for a long time. On the other hand, the theater audience rejected outright imbued with Nazi propaganda piece, born in the bowels of the Ministry of Propaganda and prepodnosimye them as satisfactory.

The tone of the Nazi drama was heroic. Drama "veterans marching" Friedrich Betzhe, set in 1935, tells the story of veterans of the Napoleonic wars, sought leader of patriots marching, revived from oblivion. Delivered in 1938 by Kurt Heynike play "The Road to Empire", tells the story of a decisive Nazi destroyed the traitor and managed to unite the Germans. "The German passion" Richard Euringera, which appeared in 1936, displays in the title role of the unknown soldier, who was looking for a better world, fighting against the capitalists and intellectuals. The play "the Panama scandal" Eberhard Wolfgang Mueller, set in 1936, shows how corrupt politicians was destroyed democracy that are actually attacking the Weimar Republic. Some Nazi playwrights won approval Goebbels, embodying onstage racial doctrine. However, like the plays failed to win the attention of the German public.

Fine Arts on

German artists have made a huge contribution in all major areas of the fine arts of the XX century, including Impressionism, Expressionism, Cubism and Dadaism. In the early 20's, many famous artists who lived in Germany, have gained international recognition for his works. Among them were the major representatives of the "new realism (Die Neue Sachlichkeit) - George Grosz, Swiss-born expressionist Paul Klee, Russian expressionist, who worked in Germany, Wassily Kandinsky. These three, along with others, worked in the famous association "Bauhaus", creating wonderful works of the postwar period.

For Hitler, who considered himself a connoisseur of art and a true artist, current trends in the German fine arts seemed meaningless and dangerous. In Mein Kampf he spoke out against "Bolshevisation art." Like art, he said, "there is the painful result of madness" [17]. Hitler claimed that the impact of these trends was particularly evident during the period of the Bavarian Soviet Republic, where political posters in the first place put forward a modernist approach. "I wish people who are no longer able to control their disease state." All the years of his movement to political power, Hitler kept a sense of extreme hostility to modern art. In 1930 he supported the National Socialist combat league Alfred Rosenberg, who actively fought against degenerative art. Hitler's own taste in art was limited to the heroic and realistic genres. True German art, he said, should never portray suffering, sorrow or pain. Artists must use paint, "are different from those that differ in the nature of a normal eye." He preferred fabric Austrian romantics, such as Franz Defregger, who specialized in the image Tyrolean peasant life. For Hitler, it was obvious that the time will come and he will purify Germany from decadent art for the sake of "true German spirit." (See. Annex)

Special Decree of 22 September 1933 was created Reichskulturkammer (Reichskulturkammer), headed by the Minister of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda Goebbels. Seven podpalat (fine arts, music, theater, literature, press, radio and cinema) were intended to serve as a policy instrument glyayhshaltung (Gleichschaltung). About 42 thousand. Loyal to the Nazi regime of culture were forcibly merged into the Imperial Chamber of Fine Arts. Directive of the body have the force of law. Anyone could be expelled for political unreliability. For artists, there were a number of limitations: Lehrverbot - denial of teaching activities; Ausstellungsverbot - deprivation of the right to exhibit; and Malverbot - deprivation of the right to paint. Gestapo agents made lightning raids on the artist's studio. Owners of art galleries and shops distributed lists of artists disgraced and banned the sale of works of art.

Unable to work under these conditions, many of the most famous German artists in exile. Paul Klee returned to Switzerland, Kandinsky went to Paris and became a French citizen, Oskar Kokoschka, whose expressionism especially irritated Hitler, he moved to England and took British citizenship, George Grosz emigrated to the United States, Max Beckmann settled in Amsterdam. Several well-known artists do decide to stay in Germany. Elderly Max Liebermann, honorary president of the Academy of Arts, was in Berlin and died here in 1935. All these artists government accused of creating non-German art.

The first official exhibition of degenerate art (1918-1933) was held in Karlsruhe in 1933, a few months after Hitler came to power. In early 1936, Hitler ordered the four Nazi artists headed by Professor Adolf Ziegler, president of the Imperial Chamber of Fine Arts, to explore all the major galleries and museums in Germany in order to remove all the decadent art. Member of the Commission Graf von Baudizen made clear what type of art he prefers: "The most perfect form, the most refined image created recently in Germany, was born not in the artist's studio - it's steel helmet!" [18]. The Commission has seized 12,890 paintings, drawings, sketches and sculptures of German and European artists, including works by Picasso, Gauguin, Cezanne and Van Gogh. March 31, 1936, these confiscated works of art were presented at a special exhibition of degenerate art in Munich.

The effect was the opposite: the huge crowds flocked to admire the creations rejected by Hitler. Held simultaneously in the neighborhood "Great German Art Exhibition", which was put up about 900 works, approved by Hitler, has attracted far less public attention. To encourage "true German artists' corresponding to his own taste, Hitler established a few hundred awards. Shortly before the outbreak of the Second World War, in March 1939, in Berlin were burnt thousands of paintings. At the end of July 1939 on the orders of Hitler at auction in Switzerland was sold to a number of pictures to get the currency.

During the war, Hermann Goering, the former far more eclectic in his artistic tastes than the Fuhrer, appropriated a lot of valuable works of art stolen during the Nazi occupation of the largest museums in Europe. Gradually, he gathered a collection of enormous value, which he regarded as personal property. Confiscation of art treasures from the museum collections occupied countries was even set up a special task force Rosenberg (Einsatzstab Rosenberg), according to which only 5281 paintings, including works by Rubens, Rembrandt, Goya, Fragonard and other great masters, was taken out in the Third Reich . Many of the stolen treasures were returned after the war to their rightful owners.

Chapter 2

Germany will survive this war, but only if our people before the eyes are examples for which he can be. Such an example, we want to give

Joseph Goebbels Mein Kampf and its author, as components of Nazi propaganda

Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889 in the small town of Braunau on the Inn River, on the border of Austria and Germany. His parents were Austrian customs officer Alois Schicklgruber and peasant Clara Pltsl. Both branches of his family were originally from the Waldviertel (Lower Austria).

In 1895 at the age of 6 years old Adolf enrolled in public school in the town Fischlham, near Linz. Two years later, being very religious woman, his mother sent him to the Lamb, in the parish school of the Benedictine monastery, after which, she hoped, would be the son of a priest. But he was expelled from school, catching smokers in the monastery garden. The family then moved to Leonding, a suburb of Linz, where the young Adolf immediately excelled in their studies. He stood out among his comrades persistence, proving leader in all children's games. In 1900-1904 he attended the Realschule in Linz, and in 1904-1905 - in Steyr. In high school, his successes were very mediocre. "I learned that I liked - he wrote later. - And above all, what could be, as it seemed to me useful to me in the future as an artist. Items that seemed unimportant to me in that sense, or that do not attract me, I completely sabotaged "[19].

The only teacher who admired Adolf, was a history teacher Leopold Ptch, an ardent Pan-Germanist, apologist Prussian King Friedrich II and Chancellor Bismarck, who taught the boy to despise the Habsburgs and defend the cause of German nationalism. The knowledge gained by Adolf in his classes, confined mainly facts testify to the greatness and the historical mission of the German people. Although the school leaving certificate of his knowledge of history assessed the mark "satisfactory", this did not prevent Hitler later claimed that "in the school, he learned to understand and respect the history."

In October 1907 the 18-year-old Adolf went to Vienna to find their way in life. But it has failed - he failed the entrance exams at the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts. It was a terrible blow to his pride, from which he never recovered, considering guilty of what happened, "those stupid professors."

In May 1913, he left and moved to Germany in Munich. In February 1914 Adolf Hitler summoned to Austria to a medical examination on the suitability for military service. But as "too weak and unfit for military service", was released. When in August 1914, war broke out, he turned to the king of Bavaria with a request for admission to his army. He had been assigned to the 16th Bavarian Infantry Regiment, recruited mainly from the student volunteers. After a few weeks of training, he was sent to the front. It is known that Hitler was the first orderly, and then most of the war served as messenger, delivering reports and orders from the headquarters of the regiment to the front [20].

After the humiliating defeat of Germany in the war, Hitler returned to Munich. Enraged by the revolution in Germany and the rise of the Weimar Republic, he turned to politics, to simultaneously resist and the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, and the new German democracy. Since he is still listed as the state of his old regiment, he was instructed to spy on political parties. In September 1919, Hitler ordered to inquire about a small group of nationalist veterans of the German Workers' Party. This party had no program, no plan of action (it acts only against the government), its treasury, there are several brands, but Hitler extremely impressed some of its ideas, which coincide with his own. He joined the party under 55, and later became 7 of its executive committee.

Here he first demonstrated his ability to political agitation and has never missed an opportunity to address the crowd, wherever it was going. "I could not speak! After 30 minutes, people in a tiny room became electrified! "In less than two years, as Hitler put forward in the management of this small party. He came up with it a new name - the Nazi Party (NSDAP). Hitler left the army in order to devote all his time to the formation of a new party. The conditions for this in Germany at that time were the most favorable: extreme dissatisfaction economic situation and fierce hatred to defeat the enemy. Ideas that he still harbored in Vienna and has emphasized, Hitler expressed in 25 points of his program, which was announced February 24, 1920: Anti-Semitism, extreme nationalism, the superiority of the Aryan race, contempt for liberal democracy and the principle of fyurerstva. The program has been designed in a way that could attract everyone who had the slightest grievance. Most of the ideas of Hitler is not a new one, but he was able to present their spectacular and very eloquently. He gave the Nazi party symbol - the swastika, and the greeting "Heil!", Borrowing both from their ancient historical predecessors. He was looking for ways to buy a newspaper "Volkischer Beobachter", to widely publicize the party views. For the protection of party gatherings he organized assault troops Brownshirts - CA (Sturmabteilungen), under the command of his closest friend Captain Ernst Ryoma. Another organization - SS (Schutzstaffeln), controlled by the Blackshirts Heinrich Himmler, Hitler became personal guard. [21]

By the end of 1923, Hitler was convinced that the Weimar Republic was on the verge of collapse, and that now he could carry out the promised "march on Berlin" and overthrow the government. With the support of the army, he was going to put Germany under Nazi control. Hitler spent his plans known among the people and the army of General Erich Ludendorff, a veteran of the First World War, the extreme reactionary and militarist. Hitler and Ludendorff tried to take advantage of the uncertain political situation and organized in Munich, November 8, 1923 attempted coup (later dubbed the "Beer Hall Putsch") in order to exert pressure on the Bavarian government and force commander of the local parts of the Reichswehr to declare a national revolution. The Nazis marched through the streets of Munich, heading to the building of the War Ministry, but they were met by police cordons, opened fire on them and dispersed the column. The putsch failed.

February 26, 1924 Hitler was tried for treason. He took the opportunity and turned the process into a propaganda triumph. Hitler showed brilliant oratory abilities to take on the role of a lawyer: "My position is that I prefer to be hanged in the Bolshevik Germany than to perish under the French sword." The moment has come to stand outside under the flag with a swastika crowd began to unite with those who had recently shot at them. Company turned into battalions, the battalions in the shelves, in the division. "Even if you recognize us a thousand times guilty, the eternal court of history will justify us and laughing throw your verdict of the court."

Hitler was sentenced to five years in prison. His behavior in the courtroom made a strong impression on all the Germans who came to be revered him as the greatest national hero. He learned an important lesson of the failed coup: it is imperative that his movement came to power by legal means. Hitler spent in Landsberg prison only 9 months. He was given a comfortable chamber, where he could reflect on their mistakes. He breakfasted in bed, spoke to his teammates on the camera and walked in the garden - all this was more like a resort than a prison. Here he dictated to Rudolf Hess, the first volume of "Mein Kampf", which later became the political bible of the Nazi movement. The second part was written by him in 1925-27, after the reconstruction of the Nazi Party.

In this book he outlined in detail the main provisions of their political program. She became widely known even before the publication, and many Germans believed that the Nazi leader is able to realize all that is outlined in the pages of his work.

Hitler originally titled his book "Four and a half years of struggle against lies, stupidity and cowardice." However, the publisher Max Aman, was not satisfied with such a long name, and he reduced it to "Mein Kampf." (See. Annex) By 1932, it sold 5.2 million copies of the book, it was translated into 11 languages. All newlyweds Germany to the marriage registration imposed the purchase of one copy of "Mein Kampf". Huge circulations made Hitler a millionaire.

The main theme of the book was to promote racial doctrine of Hitler. The Germans, he said, should be aware of the superiority of the Aryan race and keep racial purity. Their duty - to increase the size of the nation, in order to fulfill his destiny - to achieve world domination. Despite the defeat in World War I, need to re-type forces. Only in this way could the German nation in the future to take the place of the leader of mankind.

Hitler described the Weimar Republic as "the greatest mistake of the XX century", "the ugliness of life devices." He outlined three basic views about the political system. First of all, those who understand by the state just in one degree or another voluntary community of people with the government headed. Such an idea comes from the largest group - "kooky", which represent the "state power" and force the people to serve them, rather than to serve the people themselves. An example is the Bavarian People's Party. The second, less numerous group recognizes state power under certain conditions, such as "freedom", "independence" and other human rights. These people expect that such a state will be able to function in such a way that "each wallet is packed to overflowing." This group is replenished mainly from the German bourgeoisie, of the Liberal Democrats. Third, the weakest group is hoping for the unity of all people speaking the same language. They hope to achieve unity of the nation by means of language. Position of the group controlled by the Nationalist Party, the most shaky because of the obvious false fraud.

All three of these views on the state system is fundamentally false, Hitler wrote. They do not recognize the key factor which is artificially created by government is based ultimately on the basis of race. In "Mein Kampf", Hitler formulated seven points duties of the State:

The concept of "race" must be put in the spotlight;

Necessary to maintain racial purity;

As a priority, to introduce the practice of modern birth control. Sick or weak should not be allowed to have children. The German nation must be prepared for the future leadership;

Need to encourage sports among the youth to an unprecedented level of preparedness;

It is necessary to make a final military service and higher education;

Particular attention should be paid to the study of the racial issue in schools;

It is necessary to awaken among the citizens of patriotism and national pride.

On the pages of "Mein Kampf" Hitler never tired to promote their ideology of racial nationalism. "All that we admire on this earth, whether advances in science or technology - the handiwork of the few nations and, probably, most likely, a single race. All the achievements of our Kultur has the merit of this nation. " In his opinion, this is the only race Aryan.

Hitler divided humanity into three categories:

The creators of civilization;

Carriers of civilization

Destroyers of civilization.

The first group he took the Aryan race, that is the German and North American civilization, as being of primary importance. The gradual global spread of Aryan civilization up to the Japanese and other "morally dependent races" led to the creation of the second category - the carriers of civilization. This group ranked Hitler mostly peoples of the East. Only in appearance Japanese and other Asians are carriers of civilization; the inner essence, they are Aryans. The third category - the destroyers of civilization - Hitler took the Jews.

Many pages of the book are devoted to the promotion of anti-Semitism as a key principle of building a "new order". "Aryan is in sharp contrast to the Jew. Hardly any nation on earth has the instinct of self-preservation, to the extent to which it has developed the so-called "chosen people". Jews have never had their own Kultur, they always borrow it from others and develop their intelligence, coming into contact with other people. In contrast to the Aryans, Jews desire for self-preservation does not go beyond personal ". [22]

According to Hitler, the Jews were parasites on the body of other peoples, creating a state within a state, and not wanting to leave. Hitler even Judaism is not a religion, "He created people with certain racial characteristics. The Talmud is not a religious book, designed to prepare for eternity, it's just a practical guide to a comfortable life in today's world. Religious doctrines of Judaism are devoted to the preservation of the purity of Jewish blood, not religion as such. "

In addition to the hatred of Jews, Hitler was not spared and Marxism. He put on Marxists blame for what is happening decomposition national blood and loss of national ideals in Germany. Marxism will suppress German nationalism as long as he, Hitler, would not take on the role of savior. Even the defeat of Germany in 1918, Hitler explained the influence of communist ideology: "1914 was the last attempt interested in preserving the national forces to resist the impending pacifist-Marxist disfiguring the nation-state. What was needed in Germany, so it's - Teutonic state of the German nation. "

Outlined in "Mein Kampf" economic theory Hitler propagate national self-reliance and economic independence of the Reich. Economic interests and activities of the leaders of the economy were to also be entirely subordinate racial and national grounds. Reichsbank planned to put under government control. Money for all government programs, such as hydropower development and road construction should, according to Hitler, getting through the issuance of interest-free government bonds.

In general, "Mein Kampf" was frankly propagandistic and provocative book, designed to attract all the discontented elements in the ranks of the German Nazi Party, as well as fomenting xenophobia in the country. Hitler through it instilled in the minds of the German people an ardent anti-Semitism were harassed parliamentarism, Catholicism and Marxism.

The failure of the coup in 1923 caused a temporary collapse of the Nazi party, but released under an amnesty from Landsberg prison in December 1924, Hitler again with perseverance began to regain their movement. Now he chose for himself the alternative tactics - coming to power by legal means. To perform this difficult task in Berlin was sent to the then little-known Dr. Joseph Goebbels. It became the main "generator of ideas" to achieve publicity for the party.

Goebbels's propaganda model became a pamphlet written by him in the late 20s: "Why are we nationalists?

We are nationalists because we see a nation only possibility of protection and support of our entire existence. Nation - an organic association of people for the defense and protection of their own lives. One who understands this as word and deed, the - part of the nation. Today in Germany degenerated into bourgeois nationalism, patriotism, and his power has exhausted itself in the fight against windmills. They say Germany and involve the monarchy. They proclaim freedom, and mean black-white-red flag [flag of the Weimar Republic].

The new nationalism own unconditional requirements. Faith in the nation - everyone's business, regardless of class or wealth. Eternal should be separated from the momentary. Saving rotten industrial system does nothing to nationalism. I love Germany and hate capitalism at the same time; I not only can not, I have to do so. The revival of our nation depends only on the destruction of the system that robs the healthy forces of the nation.

We are nationalists because we as Germans, love Germany. And because we love Germany, we demand the protection of its national spirit and fight against its oppressors.

Why do we socialists?

We are socialists because we see in socialism the only possibility to maintain itself as a race, and using it to regain political freedom and revive the German state. Socialism is specific due primarily to the army of the partnership and the creative energy of the newly awakened nationalism. Without nationalism it is nothing, a phantom theory, a mirage, a textbook. And with it - that's all. Future, freedom, fatherland!

The trouble of the liberal bourgeoisie that she does not notice creative energy state socialism. The trouble Marxism that he brought socialism only to money and stomach.

We are socialists because for us social problems are a matter of necessity and justice, more of it - the question of the existence of our people.

Socialism is possible only in a state that is free both inside and outside. Down with the bourgeois political mood: for real nationalism! Down with Marxism for the sake of true socialism!

Long live the approval of the first German national-socialist state!

In the ranks of the National Socialist German Workers' Party!

Why are we against the Jews?

We are enemies of the Jews, because we are fighting for the freedom of the German people. Jews were the cause of our suffering, they use them. They took advantage of social differences among the masses for the sake of deepening the vicious split between left and right in our nation. They split Germany into two halves. They - the true reason for our losses in the Great War.

Jews are not interested in the solution of urgent problems of Germany. They do not need it. They live in what is considered as if there is no solution at all. If we are able to unite the German people together and ensure its freedom in the face of the world, while the Jews have no place among us. For them, the trump card in hand, is when people live in the domestic and foreign slavery. The Jews are responsible for our suffering and they are cashing in on this.

That is why we as nationalists and socialists against the Jews. They degrade our race, desecrate our morals, our customs undermine and destroy our power.

Jew - a flexible demon decline of humanity. Jew not build. He produces nothing. He only manipulates goods. As long as he fights against the state, he - a revolutionary, but as soon as he gains power, it requires peace and order to enjoy the loot at their discretion.

Anti-Semitism, they say - it is not Christian. In their opinion, a Christian is someone who watches as a Jew tightens the belt around his neck. To be a Christian means to love your neighbor as yourself! My neighbor is one who is related to me by blood. If I like it, I must hate his enemies. Anyone who considers himself a German must despise the Jews. One follows from the other.

We are enemies of the Jews, because we belong to the German nation. Jew - our greatest misfortune. It is not true that we eat a Jew every morning for breakfast. It is true that it is slowly but surely robs us of all that we have. This must stop. Because we - the Germans. "

From printed words Goebbels smoothly passed to the real business. He quickly realized that there were only two major opportunities to attract the attention of the German Nazi party and bring the achievement of the objectives of the party. The first is a "war slogans" and included the invention of new propaganda tricks, issue cards and posters, decorated in a simple and understandable style. The second device was quarrels, provoking clashes and fights with the worst enemies - Marxists. Their purpose was to win the streets of the city, establishing them their power: "We say frankly: our goal - to win the streets to lead the masses and attract people to your side!" [23]

One of the inventions of Goebbels was a new method of dealing with the Communists is to copy and mimicking not only their slogans, but also working methods. In fact, even the "storm troopers" resembled in some degree the communist "Red Brigades"; In general, the Communist Party has largely been subject to the Nazis to follow and at the same time - the most hated enemy.

In February 1927, the Nazis pasted in working-class neighborhoods of Berlin bright red banners decorated "by the Communists," calling "to prepare for the collapse of the bourgeois state." It was an invitation to a mass rally in the "Farus Hall" - a community center, located in the proletarian district in the north of Berlin, in which the communists often held their meetings. It was reported that Dr. Goebbels deliver a speech at a purely Marxist theme: "On the collapse of the bourgeois state." Posters in a decisive tone called "forge a new Germany - the state of labor and discipline." The text was composed in the style of a direct appeal to the reader, who was called the "you", "You must resolve this historical problem! Workers - the mind and the power of society! The fate of the German people - in your hands! "

Produced a great effect not only the rally, but also the process of its preparation. The Nazis called on all members of your organization to march through the streets of the "Red North" under the banners unfurled a swastika - and hid the weapon. Goebbels, challenging enemies in their own territory, deliberately provoked them to fight. When the procession arrived at the Nazi Farus Hall, there just were members of the communist "Red Front" do their own thing. There was an altercation, were heard curses and insults from both sides. The Communists began to interrupt the speech cries Nazi speakers who opened the meeting, and when Nazi guards began to remove the instigators of the riots of the hall, struck up a grand fight.

When several stormtroopers of its protection were injured in the brawl, Goebbels realized that his plan succeeded. Victims laid on a stretcher and began to make out of the room one by one, and their loud moans excited audience. These were the first martyrs of Nazi propaganda. Following them began to appear more and more new "unknown heroes CA". The apotheosis of this PR-campaign was the legend of the Horst Wessel. the streets were named after him, supposedly written by him poems included in the basis of the official party anthem, "closed their ranks and raising banners, go ahead assault troops. Comrades killed by red and reactionaries unseen marching with us ... "

Hitler's party created all the new means of propaganda and legal neutralize political opponents. The fight against dissenters, sometimes took a funny or exotic species. For example, the premiere of the famous anti-war film "On the Western Front - no change" (based on the novel E.M.Remarka) was disrupted mice and uzhami, which was released in the cinema hired Goebbels "audience."

The Nazis took "creative" part of the political debate to the public in April 1932 in the parliamentary elections of Prussia Goebbels challenged Chancellor Bruening, inviting him to address the joint political debate, but Bruning familiar with the tricks and tricks of the Nazis, refused. Then Goebbels took voice recording Bruening uttered them shortly before in Konigsberg (today Kaliningrad), and used it during his speech at a rally of the Nazis in Berlin. Goebbels several times included the recording, and then commented on and refuted the statements of his opponent, who, naturally, could not defend themselves.

As a legal form of protest marches were organized. In August 1927 fifty stormtroopers marched from Berlin (where the Nazi party was already banned) to Nuremberg, the Congress party carrying banners, the slogan on one of which read: "March of Berlin - Nuremberg: we are not allowed, but not killed!"

Conducted its first air pre-election tour of Hitler's memorable slogan "Hitler over Germany." Such flights are committed to the political activities were perceived at the time as an absolute novelty. Hitler flew from one to the other part of Germany, speaking all over the huge rallies held in the open air. In doing so, he sometimes managed to appear in one day in four different cities.

We used the teaser political advertising. A typical example of this technique were promotional events to mark the release of a weekly newspaper Der Angriff - Attack." On the streets of Berlin were pasted one after the other three posters. First came two teaser - first asked: "In attack us?"; the second declared: "We attack 4th of July!". Then went pleyzer explaining: "Attack" - a new German weekly newspaper published under the motto "For the oppressed! Down with the exploiters! "And its editor - Dr. Joseph Goebbels. The newspaper has its own political agenda. Every German, every German should read our newspaper and subscribe to her! "Novaya Gazeta addressed their attacks in two main directions. Firstly, it incited readers to oppose democracy (Weimar Republic), and secondly, fueled and exploited anti-Semitic sentiments. As a result, the newspaper was a resounding success, becoming subsequently the main mouthpiece of the party. [24]

Applied ambient media. Hitler made extensive use of non-standard advertising media to promote Nazi ideology. The most widespread this phenomenon is among SS (security detachments). As a purely wife of the SS, and the general state symbols traced in detail the clothes (and, and uniforms and civilized), gear, decorative items, personal items (cigarette cases, wallets, canteens), etc. Among the most striking examples of such manifestations should be noted rings and rings with the appropriate symbols, which were issued in the Third Reich, as to order, so centrally. SS members were generally living advertisement for the NSDAP. Their formation appropriated speaking names such as: LAH (Liebstandarte Adolf Hitler), Deutschland, Das Reich, Der Fuhrer [25].

All these actions have a beneficial effect on the political image and popularity of Adolf Hitler, and in 1933 led them to Nazi Party came to power in Germany. There was a new challenge - the total informational impact on the psyche of people. That Hitler came to power in Germany, for the first time attempted to global information impact on the population of other countries. Informational influence in the following ways:

1. Dissemination of information through news agencies, radio, by delivery abroad German newspapers and magazines, leaflets through a network of agents;

2. After the German correspondents abroad, as well as through foreign newspapers, under German influence;

3. By holding exhibitions and fairs in Germany, participation in fairs and exhibitions abroad;

4. Implementation of a cultural exchange with friendly countries in various fields (science, arts, sports, education of young people, etc.).

Information on the impact forces and the population of Austria in 1938, contributed to the success of the military operation to join her to Germany. After that were created (in August 1938), special military units propaganda. They played a crucial role in the success of strategic disinformation campaign codenamed "Icebreaker", to ensure a surprise attack on the Soviet Union.

In the future to provide more favorable conditions for radio propaganda in Austria was sent a large batch of cheap radios.

In the Wehrmacht at the headquarters of the Supreme Command in April 1939, was formed by the propaganda department. He subjected the special military units - propaganda company. According to the instructions 51/39, they were intended to accomplish the following tasks: conducting propaganda among the German population and the military ("propaganda at home"), conducting propaganda near the front ("front-line propaganda") and conduct propaganda among enemy troops ("propaganda on enemy "). Besides the task of preparing and distributing leaflets, as well as the return of prisoners of war leave the group performed on the decomposition of the enemy from the teams and army groups "Abwehr." In order of importance to the enemy propaganda equated to form armed struggle.

By the beginning of World War II Wehrmacht has 14 companies of propaganda, who led the propaganda department, headed by Hasso von Wedel.

In late 1940, the heads of major outreach centers Reich - Propaganda Ministry, Foreign Affairs, the Reich Security Main Office (RSHA), as well as Eastern Division foreign management imperial leadership of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) - Hitler personally was tasked to prepare for war against the Soviet Union.

German authorities began active work on the collection of information for the benefit of the information and psychological support for the attack on the USSR Red Army newspaper processed materials border military districts and other periodicals, up to large factories factory newspapers and magazines departmental emerging small circulations. To work involved so-called "experts on Russia", including from the emigre organizations wishing to collaborate with the Germans. They were preparing analyzes determined weaknesses of Soviet troops opened problems of Soviet society, to develop recommendations on information and psychological impact on the personnel of the Red Army and the population, taking into account national and psychological peculiarities, traditions and culture.

February 21, 1941 with the plan of attack on the Soviet Union was a familiar head of the Propaganda Department of the Wehrmacht Colonel Wedel.

Military intelligence "Abwehr" began in the USSR The sending of agents trained to conduct information warfare. They were to hold shares information and psychological nature, in particular, sow rumors spread compromising material on leadership, command of the Red Army, etc.

So, one of the schools "Abwehr" the first batch of such agents, promoters sent in February 1941, the second - in May 1941. They settled in the border military districts, with the task before the outbreak of hostilities "pave the way" for future actions. Agents recruited disgruntled Soviet power, distributed through these leaflets, compromising materials, rumors, incitement of ethnic hatred, and so on. D. On carefully and meticulously preparing the substantive aspect of propaganda accents illustrated by Goebbels in his diary entry dated June 5, 1941: "Directive propaganda against Russia: no anti-socialism; no return of tsarism; not to speak openly about the dismemberment of the Russian state, as we become embittered army, which consists mainly of Russian; against Stalin and the Jews behind it; Land - the peasants, but the collective remain, however, in order to save the harvest; sharp accusations against Bolshevism. "

Propaganda Department Staff Command of the Wehrmacht prepared directive on the use of propaganda in "Operation Barbarossa". She became the founding document of the organization and maintenance of psychological warfare against the Soviet Union. The directive defines the purposes of propaganda, its forms and methods, she was sent to the troops June 6, 1941.

The main objectives of information and psychological impact were:

1. Fear of the enemy;

2. Strengthening of defeatism;

3. Create a positive image of captivity;

4. The undermining of the authority of the state and the military and political leadership of the USSR;

5. Motivation for voluntary surrender and desertion;

6. Undermining the authority of commanders and chiefs, disobeying them;

7. Strengthening the discontent of the civilian population situation in the country;

8. Encourage people to Gay Wehrmacht;

9. Increased anxiety for the fate of their relatives.

Ministry of Propaganda stamped to June 22, 1941 more than 30 million leaflets, promotional brochures colorful pocket 30 languages ??of the peoples of the USSR and produced several radio programs. On the Eastern Front was centered 17 mouth propaganda. When the June 22, 1941 in 3 hours 15 minutes German artillery fire attack inflicted on objects on the territory of the Soviet Union, with the help of agitsnaryadov distributed a considerable number of leaflets with an appeal to the Red Army, the commander of the Red Army. Thus began the information and psychological impact in the fighting. During the first two months of the war the Germans were distributed about 200 million leaflets.

The main form of propaganda carried out by the Wehrmacht, was printed propaganda (leaflets, newspapers, magazines, and used oral broadcasting). (See. Appendix) The greatest success of the Wehrmacht propaganda machine made in 1942. After that, the command of the Wehrmacht taking additional measures to strengthen the impact on the psyche of soldiers of the Red Army, the population of the Soviet Union (there is an amplification units propaganda, they become independent combat arm).

At the beginning of 1943 the troops of the Wehrmacht propaganda included 21 company of propaganda army, 7 platoons war correspondents ground forces, a platoon of war correspondents "Greater Germany", 8 battalions of propaganda in the occupied territory, consisting of volunteer advocates.

Ministerial briefing January 6, 1943, after the defeat of the 6th Army at Stalingrad, Goebbels said: "... propaganda from the very beginning of the war made the following erroneous Development: 1st year of the war: We won. 2nd year of the war: We will win. 3rd year of the war: We have to win. 4th year of the war: We can not be defeated. This development is disastrous and should not continue under any circumstances. Rather, to the consciousness of the German public must be brought, that we not only want to and must win, but in particular also that we can win. "

Therefore, until the last minutes of the existence of the Reich propaganda fascinated brainwashed masses to his doom. In his one remaining newspaper - combat leaflets "Pantserber" issued to defenders of Greater Berlin, the Minister went on to say that the capital will is rescued, the Bolsheviks dropped and Germany's position will change for the better. April 27, Goebbels issued an order that the besieged city was literally thrown at leaflets. Berliners can make sure that these leaflets are designed for army soldiers Wenk, not for them. In fact, they were addressed to local residents - to raise their morale. Goebbels was well known that General Wenck army no longer exists.

April 29, 1945 in fyurerbunkere held last PR-action Hitler - his marriage to Eva Braun. The next day, Hitler shot himself. Behind him killed herself his wife Eva Hitler.

Even the last moments of his life, Hitler turned into a cynical apology for his actions, whitewashing his so-called "ideological work", comprising culturing the brutal instincts implanted in the minds of the German people the absurd idea of ??racial superiority and the practical problems of extermination and enslavement of people of "inferior races" supposedly representing a fertilizer for growing "master race". [26] An example of this can serve as his "Last Will" and "political will".

Last Will Adolf Hitler:

"As in the days of my struggle I felt that I could not take the responsibility associated with matrimony, now, before you run out of my earthly existence, I decided to marry a woman who, after years of faithful friendship voluntarily come to this city already almost surrounded, to share with me their own destiny. Of his own accord she would die along with me as my wife. This will reward us for all we were both denied because of my work for the good of my people.

Everything that I possess - if it has at least some value - belongs to the party. If it will cease to exist - that state. If the state will be destroyed - in any future decision on my part is not necessary.

My collection of paintings that I have gained over the years, can not be intended for private collections, but only for the replenishment of the gallery of my home town of Linz on the Danube.

My most sincere wish that this heritage could be properly used.

I appoint my executor of his most faithful Party comrade, Martin Bormann.

He is endowed with full legal authority for the execution of all decisions. He is allowed to use whatever is at least some value, or is it necessary to maintain a modest simple life of my brothers and sisters, and especially my wife's mother and my dedicated staff, who are well known to him, as, for example, my longtime secretary and Frau Winter t. e., who for many years have supported me with their work.

My wife and I, in order to avoid the shame of collapse or surrender, choose death. We want our bodies were immediately burned to the point where I was doing most of their daily affairs for 12 years of my service to the people. "

Political testament of the Fuehrer:

I part

More than thirty years have passed since I in 1914 made a modest contribution by becoming a volunteer during the First World War, imposed Reich. During these three decades I have acted solely out of love and loyalty to my people in all my thoughts, actions and life. This gave me the strength to make the most difficult decisions which have ever confronted mortal. During these three decades I have spent my time, my working strength and health.

It is not true that I or anyone else in Germany wanted war in 1939. It was desired and instigated exclusively by those international statesmen who were either of Jewish descent or worked for Jewish interests. I made too many offers on arms limitation and control over what will never be able to shrug off future generations will be solved when the question is whether the responsibility for the outbreak of this war to me. Moreover, I have never sought to ensure that after the first fatal world war broke out to second against England, or even America. Centuries will pass, and from the ruins of our towns and monuments the hatred against those finally responsible whom we have to thank for all - international Jewry and its henchmen.

Three days before the outbreak of the German-Polish war I again proposed to the British ambassador in Berlin a solution to the German-Polish problem - similar to that in the case of the Saar - international control. This offer also can not be denied. It was only rejected because the leading circles in English politics wanted the war, partly based on business considerations and partly under the influence of propaganda organized by international Jewry.

For me, it was also obvious that if the people of Europe will be a bargaining chip, it is the Jews as the real criminals in this bloody struggle, will be held accountable. I did not have no one in doubt that this time not only would millions of children of European Aryan peoples die of hunger, not only millions of grown men suffer death, not only hundreds of thousands of women and children will be burned and bombed to death in the cities, and the true criminal redeem his guilt, even if by more humane means.

After six years of war, which despite all the setbacks, go down one day in history as the most glorious and valiant demonstration of a nation's aspirations in life, I can not leave the city, which is the capital of the Reich. As the forces are too small to make any further stand against the enemy attack at this place, and our resistance is gradually being weakened by men, misled, lack initiative, I would like to staying in this town, to share my fate with those millions of others who volunteered to do the same. Also, I do not want to fall into the hands of the enemy who requires a new spectacle organized by the Jews for the sake of their hysterical masses.

So I decided to stay in Berlin and voluntarily choose death at the moment when I realize that the Fuehrer and Chancellor of the post can no longer be saved. I die with a happy heart, aware of the immeasurable deeds and achievements of our soldiers at the front of our women in the home, the achievements of our peasants and workers, and unprecedented in the history of our youth who bear my name.

By this I from the depths of my heart, thank you all, as the only his desire to you, no matter what do not want to give up the fight, but further continued her against the enemies of the fatherland, no matter where the faithful believe the great Clausewitz. The victim of our soldiers and from my own unity with them until his death, in any case, will ascend in German history seeds radiant renaissance of the National Socialist movement and then the implementation of true unity of the nation. Many of the most courageous men and women decided to unite their lives with mine until the very end. I have begged and finally ordered them not to do so, and to take part in the further battle of the Nation. I ask the commanders of the Army, Navy and Air Force to strengthen by all possible means the spirit of resistance of our soldiers in the National Socialist consciousness, with special reference to the fact that I personally, as the founder and creator of this movement, prefer death to cowardly abdication or even capitulation.

Perhaps in the future, it will become part of the code of honor of the German officer - as is already the case in our Navy - that the surrender of a district or town is impossible, and that above all the leaders should go ahead as shining examples, faithfully fulfilling their duty unto death.

Part II

Before his death, I was expelled from the party of the former Reichsmarschall Hermann Goering and deprive him of all rights, which he used on the basis of the decree of 29 June 1941, and thanks to my statement in the Reichstag on September 1, 1939. I appoint instead of Grand Admiral Doenitz Reich President and Supreme Commander of the armed forces.

Before his death, I expel from the party and from all offices of State former Reichsfuhrer SS and Minister of the Interior Heinrich Himmler. Stead I appoint Reichsfuhrer SS and Chief of the German Police Gauleiter Karl Hanke, and Reich Minister of the Interior Gauleiter Paul Giesler. Goering and Himmler, quite apart from their treachery against me personally, caused immeasurable damage to the country and the nation, conducting secret negotiations with the enemy, which they conducted without my knowledge and against my wishes, and illegally attempted to usurp power in the state .. .

While many people such as Martin Bormann, Dr. Goebbels, along with their wives, have joined me on their own and did not want to leave the capital of the Reich under any circumstances, and wished to die here with me, I must nevertheless ask them to obey my request in this case, put the interests of the nation above their own feelings. Thanks to their work and loyalty as comrades they will be even closer to me after death, I hope that my spirit will remain in them forever. Let them be hard, but never unjust, above all let them never allow fear to influence their actions and let the honor of the nation above everything in the world. And in the end, even if they are aware of the fact that our task of continuing the building of the National Socialist State, represents the work of centuries to come, which requires that every single person is always to serve the common interest and to subordinate his own advantage to complete this task. I demand of all Germans, all National Socialists, men, women and all soldiers of the armed forces that they are faithful and obedient unto death to the new government and its President.

First of all I charge the leaders of the nation and those who report to them, carefully follow the laws of race and to merciless opposition to the universal poisoner of all nations - international Jewry. "Conclusion.

Study and analysis of propaganda of Nazi Germany showed that it differed systematic approach, targeting and methodical action. Its main forms are: radio, posters, printed campaign materials (newspapers, flyers, etc.), cinema, theater performances, as well as special means of propaganda (non-standard media propaganda texts and images, the psychological impact).

During these years, its technical characteristics and the ability to reach the widest possible audience, the radio became the primary means of propaganda. A powerful influence on the target audience is the poster. They are marked by diversity and topical themes and original style of the artists involved in their creation. Printed campaign materials complement the impact of radio and posters and had the character of the final blow in a massive propaganda attack on the target groups.

Cinema for this time was the most technically advanced means of influence, opens for its creators opportunities for creativity and innovation. Involvement in the sphere of propaganda activities such distinguished artists as Leni Riefenstahl caused a kind of chain reaction of ideas impact on the target audience. Part of the population, yet maintain a healthy skepticism towards Nazi ideas after watching films, became a staunch supporter and their conductors.

In support of the main means of propaganda, productive special means of propaganda differed focused and diversity.

According to the author, the study of materials relating to the period of Nazi Germany does not carry the danger of adopting definitely anti-human ideas of the Nazis, on the other hand, for people who care about their national identity, the results of this study will allow time to feel the moment of transformation into a fanatical patriotism natsizm.Spisok literature

Literature in Russian:

1. GF Alexandrov, MR Galaktionov et al. Joseph Stalin. Brief biography. - M., 1952.

2. Gurevich, B. Ruzhnikov Soviet broadcasting. Pages of history. - M., 1976.

3. Kara-Murza SG Manipulation of consciousness.

4. The Party of the media and propaganda. - M., 1987.

5. Musician VL Advertising and PR - technologies in business, commerce and politics. - M., 2002.

6. Nazaretyan AP Psychology spontaneous mass behavior.

7. Olshansky DV Psychology of terror. - Luxembourg: Business book, M .: Academic Project, OPPL, 2002.

8. Ostrogorsky B. Radio called "Manihi." - M., 1972.

9. Posters of the Great Patriotic War. - M., 1985.

10. GG Pocheptsov Propaganda and counter-propaganda. - M .: Center, 2004.

11. Sakharov AN, Trinity SM Living voices of history. - M .: Mol. Guard, 1978.

12. Dictionary of Russian language. - M., 1981 - 1984.

13. Smirnov For the Motherland! For Stalin! - M., 1951.

14. A modern dictionary of foreign words. - M., 2001.

15. V. Telitsyn Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. - M., 2004.

16. VV Uchnova The history of national advertising. 1917 - 1990 - Moscow, 2004.

Literature in foreign languages:

17. Bramstedt E., G. Frankel, Manvell R. Joseph Goebbels. Mefistofele grins from the past. - M., 2000.

18. Joseph Goebbels Diaries 1945. - Smolensk, 1998.

19. Joseph Goebbels Speech.

20. Hitler Mein Kampf, Adolf.

21. Nietzsche Friedrich anti-Christian. Experience criticism of Christianity.

22. Heinz-hyun Black Order of SS. History guard detachments.

23. Victor Klemperer LTI. Language of the Third Reich. Notebook philologist.

24. Niccolo Machiavelli Emperor.

25. J. Sivulka. Soap, sex and cigarettes. The history of American advertising. St. Petersburg, 2002.

26. M. Uindrou garrison of the NSDAP. SS troops. - M., 2004.

Documentary Chronicle:

27. Leni Riefenstahl Triumph des Willens.

28. Leni Riefenstahl Tag der Freiheit.

29. Leni Riefenstahl Olympia.

30. BBC Hitler's henchmen: Goebbels. The firebrand.

Feature films:

31. Tatiana Lioznova Seventeen Moments of Spring.

32. D. Tambieva Sword and Shield

Internet - sources:








List of abbreviations used

Red Army - Red Army

Nazi Party (NSDAP) - National Sozialist Deutsche Arbeiten Partei - Nazi Party

The Gestapo (Gestapo) - Geneime Staatspolizei - secret state police in Nazi Germany

Abwehr (Abwehr) - Intelligence agencies in Nazi Germany

RSHA - Reich Security Main Office


[1] Russian dictionary. - M., 1981 - 1984.

[2] BBC Hitler's henchmen: Goebbels. The firebrand.

[3] Ibid

[4] BBC Hitler's henchmen: Goebbels. The firebrand.

[5] B. Telitsyn Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. - M., 2004.

[6] Victor Klemperer LTI. Language of the Third Reich. Notebook philologist.

[7] V. Telitsyn Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. - M., 2004.

[8] P. Gurevich, B. Ruzhnikov Soviet broadcasting. Pages of history. - M., 1976.

[9] VV Uchnova The history of national advertising. 1917 - 1990 - Moscow, 2004.

[10] B. Telitsyn Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. - M., 2004.

[11] B. Telitsyn Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. - M., 2004.

[12] B. Telitsyn Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. - M., 2004.

[13] BBC Hitler's henchmen: Goebbels. The firebrand.

[14] Leni Riefenstahl Triumph des Willens.

[15] Leni Riefenstahl Olympia.

[16] B. Telitsyn Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. - M., 2004.

[17] Adolf Hitler Mein Kampf.

[18] B. Telitsyn Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. - M., 2004.

[19] Adolf Hitler Mein Kampf.

[20] B. Telitsyn Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. - M., 2004.

[21] M. Uindrou garrison of the NSDAP. SS troops. - M., 2004.

[22] Adolf Hitler Mein Kampf.

[23] E. Bramstedt, G. Frankel, Manvell R. Joseph Goebbels. Mefistofele grins from the past. - M., 2000.

[24] E. Bramstedt, G. Frankel, Manvell R. Joseph Goebbels. Mefistofele grins from the past. - M., 2000.

[25] M. Uindrou garrison of the NSDAP. SS troops. - M., 2004.

[26] From a speech by the chief prosecutor at the Nuremberg trials of the USSR RA Rudenko

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