Automating the process of drilling - Technology


Automation of the process is an important part of scientific and technological progress in exploration. Theoretical studies on improving process control and optimization of drilling have new possibilities of practical implementation with the advent of the microprocessor control technology and the creation on its basis of automated control systems.

In the industry for several years conducted research on the development of microprocessor-based automatic control systems exploration drilling methods and means of implementing a universal, multi-function control, capable, unlike analog hard decisions to implement a flexible drilling technology.

Various samples of automated process control drilling exploratory wells for solid minerals can not only control the drilling process in real time on any of the known algorithms, but also to collect, store and process information about the drilling process, and diagnose performance of individual components and mechanisms.

Automation of technological processes on the basis of modern technology should provide the intensification of production, improve quality and reduce production costs.

The need for this arises from the analysis of production activities of exploration companies to implement the targets. Despite the fact that the introduction of modern equipment, tools, advanced drilling technology, mechanization and automation of certain operations, improving the organization of labor in general enforced these tasks, exploration drilling are substantial reserves increase productivity and improve its technical and economic indicators. These reserves are primarily in the optimization and automation of operational management process of drilling wells and improving work organization.

Today, in conditions of intensified production, increased drilling rates sharply increased physical load on the rig personnel. Considering also tend to increase the depth of drilling exploratory exploratory wells, one could argue that increased psychological burden and responsibility for decisions made while drilling driller. Already downtime due to incorrect technology solutions in the process of drilling is 5-7% of the total balance of working time.

The drilling process, particularly deep wells flowing in the face of considerable uncertainty, exposed to strong and unpredictable disturbing influences, the basis of which - like mining and geological and technical and technological factors. Drillers know how the project geological section may differ from the actual, and consequently, the design technology of drilling - the actual. Driller has to deviate from the design technology, use their experience, knowledge and intuition to find the time to change the category drillability rocks, unfavorable technological situation; good craftsmen work on the verge of art. So learn to drill a well, do not specify the design parameters of drilling modes, and they vary depending on the conditions very difficult. Much faster and cheaper to learn to use the system of automatic driller drilling process control, which will select and maintain optimal drilling mode in accordance with predetermined criteria of optimality and within the limits set. With the help of automated control systems can be more tightly rationed drilling process, widely deploy advanced drilling technology.

Collection device and processing information on the state of the drilling process is an integral part of an automated system to manage this process. The objective of this diploma project is to develop such a device. The choice of this problem is caused by the specifics of the specialty ATPiP.

Chapter 1. Description of the process of drilling.

1.1. Borehole and its elements.

Borehole called cylindrical excavation in the earth's crust, characterized by a relatively small diameter compared to its depth.

Basic elements of the borehole (Fig. ZZZZ).

Wellhead 1 - point of intersection of the well bore earth's surface, the bottom waters of the elements or excavation during drilling in underground conditions.

Downhole 8 - deepening the bottom of the borehole during drilling; it can be circular with a core 6 7 8 or solid.

9 borehole wall - the side surface of the borehole.

Wellbore 2.5 - space bounded wellbore walls. In unstable rocks borehole wall fixed casing the wellbore with tapers.

The axis of the borehole 4 - locus of the center of the face moving at uglubki well, that is. E. An imaginary line connecting the centers of the cross sections of the borehole.

Depth skvazhiny- distance between the mouth of the borehole bottom and along its axis.

Hole diameter - nominal diameter equal to the nominal diameter of the rock cutting tool. The actual diameter of the well is usually greater than the nominal rock cutting tool through the development of a well.

There is also the concept of "design of the well." Under construction well imply its characteristics, determined by the change

February 1







A - A 6

July 8

Ris.ZZZZ. Elements of the borehole:

1 - wellhead; 2 - wellbore lined pipes; 3 - casings; 4 - axis of the well; 5 -stvol well, not lined pipes; 6 - ring culling; 7 - core; 8 - continuous slaughter; 9 - the borehole wall; ,, - borehole diameter in different intervals; ,,, - diameter casing respectively external, internal - diameter core; - well depth intervals, fixed pipes - well depth

diameter (,,) c depth and diameters (,) and length (,) of casing 3 (see. Fig. ZZZZ).

Distinguish wellbore not fixed pipes 5 and borehole mounted tubes 2.

Subsequent borehole diameter decreases after each fix.

Each casing protrudes over the wellhead, but can be lowered and countersunk. If necessary, the space between the walls of the casing and the borehole is filled with cement mortar.

1.2. Classification of boreholes

All wells, in order to storm the regional studies, prospecting, exploration and mining are divided into the following categories and groups.

Exploration wells divided by the reference, parametric, structural Kartirovochno, prospecting and exploration.

Reference wells are drilled to study the geological structure and hydrogeological conditions geostructural major elements (regions) to select the most promising areas of exploration.

Parametric wells are drilled for measuring temperature and geophysical properties of rocks in terms of their natural occurrence, examine and identify promising areas for detailed geologic work.

Structural and mapping wells are drilled to identify and study the geological structures of dip of rock strata, for monitoring and verifying the data of geological and geophysical surveys.

Exploratory wells drilled to the discovery of new mineral deposits.

Exploration wells are drilled to delineate and identify mineral reserves, establish mining conditions and select the method of its operation.

Production wells are drilled for oil and gas, groundwater, brine, salt containing bromine, iodine, and other components; for underground coal gasification, sulfur and mineral wax smelting, leaching of iron, manganese, phosphate, copper and uranium salts, sublimation of mercury, sulfur burning underground, hydraulic borehole coal and phosphates; use of heat the Earth's interior. In accordance with the extracted minerals production wells are divided into oil, gas, hydro-geological, geotechnical, hydrothermal.

Technical wells are drilled for a variety of engineering problems.

1.3. The essence of the scheme and the drilling of wells

Distinguish between the concept of "boring" and "construction of the well." By drilling understand the following set of operations, which resulted in the implementation of which creates a borehole.

1. The destruction of rocks at the bottom.

2. Removal of broken rocks (slurry) from the bottom surface.

3. Securing the borehole walls in unstable (collapsing) rocks.

Rock can be destroyed by mechanical, electrical, thermal (heat), explosive, chemical and other means.

Buryats are usually mechanically different rock cutting tool. In this case, under the influence of static and dynamic loads rock cutting tool crushes, crush, cut, shear, crush, abrade, seals breed. Disruption can occur rocks around slaughter or form a ring with the undisturbed rock pillar (core) as shown in Figure ZZZZZ.

The following methods for removing particles of broken rocks:

- Hydraulic, wherein degradation products are submitted washing liquid flow (water, mud, special flushing liquid petroleum-based polymers, etc.);

- Pneumatically, whereby decomposition products are carried by compressed air or gas;

- Mechanical, carried out drilling or special tool (drill glass, stretcher or spiral auger, auger, bailer), as determined by the method of drilling;

- Uses a combination of two or three of the above methods simultaneously or sequentially.

In the wall of the bore in the unstable rocks uglubki common fixed astringent drilling fluids (clay, polymer, and so on.), And cement and cementitious materials, synthetic resins, etc. and freeze. For fixing holes for a longer time used mainly steel casing but can be used stainless steel pipe, cast iron, asbestos cement, plastics and other materials.

Under construction well understood set of works on its preparation, drilling and maintenance of steady state, holding it necessary research, liquidation or deposit it into operation.

The construction of wells except drilling provides the following types of work: installation rig; testing and research in the well - logging; and a curvature measurement of liquid level, water samples, using the definition of pumping flow rate, etc .; plugging wells for the purpose of separation and isolation bearing and absorbing layers; installation of the filter and the water-pump in water wells; prevention and elimination of accidents wells (plugging liquidation); demolition rig and work on soil remediation. These kinds of works are carried out drilling, assembly, logging, hydrogeological and other teams.

1.4. Classification of drilling methods

Drilling of wells may be ways fundamentally different physical nature of rock failure: mechanical, physical and chemical.

Basically apply mechanical drilling, which, depending on the method of exposure to broken rocks, subdivided into rotary motion, shock and rotational shock (Fig. ZZ11).

The most common rotary drilling, where the rock cutting tool gets rotated by a special mechanism - spindle spinner or rotor - through the drill string or from a downhole motor (hydraulic or electric). In this connection distinguish drilling spindle, rotary, downhole motors - turbodrills and electric drills.

During the drilling of the above methods will rock any hardness can destroy the whole area of ??the face or on the ring to form a well in the center column of undisturbed rock - core. The first method, called beskernovym widely used in drilling

operational and technical wells. The second method is called coring and is used in prospecting and exploration of mineral deposits.

Depending on how the lift core from downhole to surface distinguish core drilling with wireline and hydraulic transport core. In the first case, the core lying in the inner barrel on the steel gladkostovolnoy thin rope inside the drill string and conveyed in the second double-pipe inner pipe string mud flow. Rotary drilling is carried out with the washing or blowing.

When drilling shallow wells in soft rocks used rotary screw and rotary drilling rigs slowly spoons and spiral drills without washing.

Percussion drilling is used in placer deposits exploration, drilling, hydrogeological and engineering of various purpose large-hole in the rocks of any hardness (in hard rocks is little performance). The essence of this method lies in the fact that the heavy hammer with a chisel shell periodically reset on a rope from a small height on a face, crushing and skalyvaya with this breed. After each impact projectile rotates at an angle due to the unwinding of the rope. Removal of broken rocks carried bailer. Percussion Methods used in the sinking of oil and gas wells in some countries, including the United States, has long been used in the oil fields Russia [NG Sereda, EM Soloviev - Drilling oil and gas wells - Moscow "Core"! 984g.].

Shock-rotary drilling by rotating under constant axial load of rock cutting tools are applied to any type of frequent strikes. Hard rock while destroyed more efficiently. Drilling shock-rotary method using special downhole mechanisms: hammers, hammers, magnetostrictors and downhole vibrators.

Vibration method is applied when drilling shallow wells in soft rocks.

Physical methods of destruction of rocks during drilling practically apply the thermal, thermomechanical, eletrotermichesky and hydraulic.

Other methods of destruction of rocks are not out of the experimental stage.

1.5 The main technical and technological concepts of process


The concept of the drilling tool. A tool designed for drilling called drilling. Drilling tools intended divided into technological, auxiliary, emergency and special. Technological tool used 7epomredstvenno during drilling: rock cutting tools (crowns, chisels, reamers), core catcher, core pipes and connections, collars, bailer, shock rods, screws, Kelly. Set of process tool connected in a certain sequence, called drilling assembly. Depending on the method of drilling distinguish weasel, shock, vibration, and other drill. For example, a part of the drill when core drilling includes coring kit, drill string, kelly.

Auxiliary tool designed to secure the borehole walls and maintenance of technological tools. To an accessory tools include casing and connections, clamps, wrenches elevators, skid forks, etc.

Emergency tool is designed to eliminate accidents in the wells. For emergency tool include various fishing tools (taps, bells, and so on. D.), Cutting tools (cutters, milling cutters, etc.. D.), Power tools (knock women, vibrators, etc...) And others.

The special tool is used to perform special work in the wells associated with the correction of distortions, drilling in a given direction, and so on. D.

Technological concepts. Mode setting drilling - a factor that influences the performance of drilling, defined, measured and supported by the driller or a gun during uglubki well. The main parameters are: a) for rotary drilling: the axial load on the rock cutting tool; speed drill; consumption of cleaning agent; b) for percussion drilling: the mass of the projectile shock; drop height; impact frequency and others.

Set of parameters drilling mode characterizing the operation of the rock cutting tool (drilling speed) is called the technological mode of drilling. Technological drilling mode is selected depending on the physical and mechanical properties of rocks, well depth, type of rock cutting tools and technical capabilities of the equipment.

The following types of technological modes of drilling: optimal, rational and special.

The optimum drilling mode provides the best technical and economic parameters of drilling.

Rational drilling mode is determined based on the technical capabilities of drilling equipment and tools. For example, it is known that solid hard rock drilling impregnated diamond bits necessary to carry out at high speeds (> 700 - 1000 rev / min), but used the rig does not have these speeds or drill string to be cut off, therefore, have to take this into account and set rational speed capability below the crown.

Special drilling mode is used to obtain the desired quality indicators drilling or special tasks. The parameter values ??in this mode are different from the optimum mode. For example, a special mode is set in drilling for minerals, which is subject to destruction by mechanical effects and of the flushing fluid. This decreases the speed of the projectile and the flow of washing liquid.

Running-diamond bits also carried out in a special mode in which the axial load and speed or below the optimal management regimes. Sometimes emit so-called forced drilling mode.

Drilling rate

Technological regimes affect the performance of drilling, which refers to the quantitative and qualitative parameters of well construction, speed, cost of 1 m drilled well, the percentage of core recovery, the direction of the well and others.

The performance of individual processes in the construction of the well can be characterized by a certain speed drilling (mechanical, shuttle, technical, commercial and cyclic).

ROP -value uglubki wells per unit time and determined pure drilling (m / h) by the formula


where l - value uglubki wells during drilling clean, m - time net drilling hours.

Under the net drilling understand the time during which the broken rocks at the bottom.

In practice, depending on the date of the initial definitions vary, of course, the average, the highest mechanical speed.

Penetration rate - the main indicator of the efficiency of the process of drilling, rock cutting tools used by quality, rational modes of operation, the perfection of used drilling technology, and so on. D.

Regular drilling speed - the value uglubki wells per unit time is determined by the duration of the flight, and (in m / h) according to the formula


somewhere value uglubki wells per flight - time to perform round-trip and auxiliary operations, h.

Flight is a complex work, including the launching and recovery drill, clean drilling, core recovery, replacement of rock cutting tools and others.

Regular rate depends on the mechanical speed and depth of the well and is further characterized by durability rock cutting tools, drill excellence, providing high-grade core sampling, as well as the degree of complex mechanization and automation of execution of draining and lifting and auxiliary operations during the voyage.

Technical drilling speed is determined by the volume of drilling, drilled one brigade (rig) per month, including the time spent on the net drilling, ACT and auxiliary operations, fixing and cementing of all kinds of research, scheduled preventive maintenance, and so on. D. (In m /st.-mes)


where L - the volume of drilling for 1 month, m, u, respectively, while net drilling, ACT and additional costs (mounting, research, scheduled repairs, and so on. d.) per month, h; M - the duration of the month, h (M = 720 is used, or 744 hours).

Technical drilling speed depends on the mechanical and voyage speed and additionally reflects the effectiveness of the implementation of additional productive work associated with the construction of wells (fastening, cementing, hydrogeological and geophysical surveys, and so on. D.).

Commercial drilling rate determines the amount of drilling in the past month, taking into account also the overhead (downtime, complications, accidents) (in m / st.-mo.)


somewhere overhead time for a month, h.

The cycle speed is determined by the ratio of drilling wells to depths of time consumption per month from the transportation of drilling equipment to abandonment (m / st.-mo.).


Where H - depth of the well, m - overall time for the construction of wells (from transportation to liquidation), st.-months.

The cycle drilling speed characterizes the level of technical means used, drilling technology, organization of work in the construction of wells, its liquidation or commissioning.

1.6 The nature and variety of rotary drilling deep

Rotary drilling without coring is the primary means of well construction in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas fields. In addition, it is used for drilling water, explosive, and other hydrothermal wells for various engineering purposes as well as for drilling shafts. Given the above, we describe more precisely deep rotary drilling.

Drilling of deep wells is only a rotational manner and is divided into rotary, turbine and electric drills.

In rotary drilling, the drill rotates the rotor installed on the ground surface above the wellhead.

When turbine drilling rock cutting tool rotates turbodrill who descend on bottom hole with a chisel on the drill string. Turbodrill is a multi-stage hydraulic turbine, which works on the flow of washing liquid. The drill string is not rotated, the stationary rotor receives torque reaction.

Electric drills when drilling rock cutting tool rotates downhole oil-filled AC motor having a small diameter and of considerable length. Drill string while stationary. With this sharply reduced torque on the column is excluded alternating bending pipes and almost completely removed the dynamic loads. The drill string is present in more favorable loads, thereby increasing the resistance of pipes. Electricity is supplied to the electric motor mounted on a drill pipe cable segment which, when screwing the drill pipes are automatically connected. The washing liquid is supplied to the gap on a face between the inner walls of pipes and cables.

In rotary and turbine drilling, where necessary to clarify the geological section applies coring coring bit or turbodolotami.

Rotary drilling and drilling with electric drills can be conducted by washing or blowing.

Rotary drilling depth is capable of reaching 10 km. This method is designed to drill the well depth of 15 km. Hole diameter range from 76 to 590 km.

With all the varieties of deep rotary drilling using the same highly sophisticated rigs, the total installed power reaches 4000 kW and weight - 1,000 tons.

.Vraschatelnoe Drilling without coring possible in rocks of any hardness from I to XII categories on drilling capacity at relatively high speeds uglubki wells. In soft rock penetration rate can reach 100 m / h, and commercial - 6 - 9 th. M / st.-months. In hard rock in deep penetration rate is reduced to 1 m / h, and the commercial 200-300 m / st.-mo.

In Russia, about 76% of the total wells are drilled turbine system, 22.5% - 1.5% and rotary - electric drills.

Chapter 2. Feasibility study to develop computer-aided process control drilling

2.1 Technical and economic preconditions automation of the drilling process

Automation of technological processes on the basis of modern technology should provide the intensification of production, improve quality and reduce production costs.

The need for this arises from the analysis of production activities of exploration companies to implement the targets. Despite the fact that the introduction of modern equipment, tools, advanced drilling technology, mechanization and automation of certain operations, improving the organization of labor in general enforced these tasks, exploration drilling are substantial reserves increase productivity and improve its technical and economic indicators. These reserves are primarily in the optimization and automation of operational management process of drilling wells and improving work organization.

. Automating the process of drilling has become feasible only with the advent of relatively cheap and reliable computers that can perform the functions of an automated process control drilling.

This chapter is devoted to discussion of practical issues related to the identification and justification of the need for the development of automated process control drilling. Because drilling has not its own considerable experience of automation of technological processes, are used experience and other industries.

As a result of the introduction of new techniques and advanced technology of diamond drilling speed in the past 10 years has increased by 1.5-2 times and, according to experts, to maintain in the future productivity growth only through technical solutions is hardly possible. But in terms of intensified production, increased drilling rates rose sharply exercise on the rig personnel. Considering also the upward trend in the depths of exploration drilling and exploration wells, one could argue that increased psychological stress and is responsible for the decisions taken by the driller in the drilling process. Today downtime due to incorrect technology solutions in the process of drilling is 5-7% of the total balance of working time.

So, on the one hand, there is an objective need to automate the drilling process, on the other - there are the necessary prerequisites for the creation of automated control systems. Let us consider some aspects of the feasibility of warping development of management systems.

2.2. Characteristics of the drilling process as an object of automatic control

Specialists of the American company IBM, who have extensive experience in the field of control systems with computers for complex processes that potentially need to automate, give the following general characteristics and factors:

The need for private and considerable changes of operating modes;

Capacity of the plant;

Disturbances acting on the process;

Process complexity and others.

The process of drilling exploratory wells is characterized by frequent and significant restructuring of the operating modes. This is due to the frequent changes in the stochastic properties of the drilled rocks and other factors, such as changes in the properties of the rock cutting tool during drilling and cleaning agent extension drill shaft; specific operations caused by staging tool for slaughter and his running-rise core drill pipes and other.

According to American experts, plant capacity, expressed in terms of the size of investment is one of the criteria to justify the need to automate the process. With the cost of managing the complex process in srednem- of 300 thousand. USD. And a two-year payback value of fixed assets should be from 5 to 60 million. Dollars. (1996 data)

Another common feature of many processes that justified the use of automatic control - which replace frequent and intense exposure, resulting in economic losses.

The drilling process, particularly deep wells flowing in the face of considerable uncertainty, exposed to strong and unpredictable disturbing influences, the basis of which-as mining and geological and technical and technological factors.

The drilling process is not only the production process in terms of consumption of material and labor resources and production of the product of labor in the form of formed (drilled) hole and the resulting core (for which, in fact, I pay the drill team), but also the research process if we bear in mind the main purpose of drilling - to obtain information about the structure of the Earth's interior.

There is a paradox: planning, designing and normalizing the drilling process, we hereby affirm that we know the object of labor - bowels of the earth. But the wells are drilled, therefore, we do not know the object of labor and strive to acquire new knowledge about the structure of the Earth's interior. While being prepared drilling process, its design, we consider as a deterministic process. After the start of drilling and drilling during the production process assumes the character of a stochastic, research, information process. The contradiction between production and research nature of the drilling process is its features which must be considered when creating automated control system.

In terms of techniques of automatic control drilling process are virtually unexplored. Analysis chart recording mode parameters of drilling, recorded with maximum frequency shows almost continuous changes as the parameters and indicators of the drilling process. How often you need to manage the process of drilling, as its effectiveness depends on the frequency of control? When manually managing these issues do not arise. In automatic mode, this problem is fundamental.

Control actions of the control system to a managed object should act in a timely manner and in accordance with the changed conditions of drilling. On the speed control is largely hang the quality of management and outcome. And since the drilling process is dynamic and requires frequent adjustments of control actions, at least in highly intermittent rocks, it is clear that an automated control system has the advantage over the man.

Complex technical or operational point of view, the process may be the subject of automation control with the use of computers. The technological complexity of the drilling process due to the large number of process variables whose values ??are to some extent determine the effectiveness of the process, and a lot of interaction between them, which requires the application is not always obvious control actions. This is particularly evident in various technological situations, the correctness of which depend on recognition control actions drillers. Operational complexity due to technological complexity and is characterized by the requirement of conducting drilling at an optimum level, within the established system of constraints. This is compounded by the fact that the driller to select the correct solution must be remembered and history of the drilling process for a relatively long period of time.

Manual control of even two or three parameters of the drilling process at the optimum level in terms chastoperemezhayuschihsya rocks and deep well is hardly possible.

Automated control of the drilling process can successfully change almost simultaneously two or three options available to the individual frequency. Consequently, the source of the effectiveness of automated management is, at least, decrease length of time to find the optimal mode, agility from one mode to the other in connection with the changed conditions, as well as the almost complete elimination of violations of the process leading to a crash. In addition, the drilling process control strategy can be built on the account of calculated indicators (eg uglubki per revolution). These variables are calculated indirect control computer that uses information about the basic parameters of the drilling process, which are measured by serial test equipment.

3.3. The main sources of the effectiveness of the development and implementation of automated process control drilling

One of the main sources of economic efficiency -Increase quality control in its automation.

If the management of the drilling regarded as maintaining process parameters (eg, mechanical speed and so. N.) As close as possible to a given mode, which is set driller engineer based on his knowledge of geotechnical drilling conditions, the quality control will be how exactly for a long time drilling process matches the specified modes, settings, etc. As practice shows, usually driller efforts are not enough to support the process within a given mode or index. This is due to the random nature of the factors affecting the drilling process, and disabled person.

Automated control system enhances the quality of governance because of its features quickly respond to disturbances and to develop control actions, which take into account the mutual influence of parameters and indicators protsessa.Krome The system ensures quality control, which is especially important.

The above described approach to management is to maintain a given state of the process (so-called local regulation), the system must be implemented promising management techniques that can not be done using traditional manual. These include such methods; implemented in the process of automatic control, as operational optimization, adaptive tuning, regulation of the perturbation, management calculated on indirect variables that are not directly measurable (eg, achieving minimum power ratio for drilling to ROP), etc.

Another source of the effectiveness of automated control systems - an increase in productivity due to increased penetration rates, reducing the number of accidents and complications, increase of productive time due to objective documented control.

Obviously, in the near future is not expected reduction in staff rig, because, at least in terms of safety, the rig should be serviced at least two workers. But we can speak of a conditional release numbers for automated control even during the drilling of one well. Since the control system takes over some of the functions of the drilling service personnel, the workers can free up time to perform various ancillary works. Furthermore, by increasing the velocity reduction of the amount of drilling rigs, and consequently also the number of workers.

Reducing the cost of 1 m of drilling a well - next source efficiency of automated process control drilling. This is achieved on the one hand, due to the growth of labor productivity, and on the other - due to lower unit costs abrasive materials, tools, energy, increasing the time between repairs of equipment, etc. For example, a well-known system of vector-1. developed in Sevukrgeologii Flyantikovym VA and VA Babishinym. provided the productivity gains of 46%, an increase of mechanical speed and the length of the voyage by 30 and 43%, respectively, lower costs for drilling capacity of 1 m flow abrasive materials and the cost of drilling at 6.50 and 19.3%, respectively.

These results were obtained during the drilling of exploration wells planned, totaling more than 10 thousand. M. Note that the system is called as a result of tight, hardware, implementation of the control algorithm has very limited functionality and essentially controls only one parameter, the load on the rock cutting tools (chisels ).

By the implicit sources of economic efficiency include the monitoring and recording parameters, as well as indicators of the drilling process, made the control system. At the same time released a certain part of engineering and technical personnel; which should clocking process and pre-process the data.

Obtaining objective data provide the basis for optimal design of the drilling process, valuation, etc..

In the near future with the introduction of hydroficated rig the new generation could increase efficiency by extending the functionality of the control system of the drilling process, such as the automation of round-trip operations, diagnostics machine status, operational data processing borehole geophysics, accounting of materials and so on. D.

Introduction of automated control systems has social significance. First of all, is to eliminate differences between mental and physical labor, improving working conditions and safety as a result of the automation of drilling personnel can be removed to a safe distance from moving or rotating parts, and creating comfortable working conditions.

3.4. State of development in the drilling process automation

According to reports, the creation of automated process control drilling in recent years are also involved foreign companies.

Japanese firm "Koken Boring Machine Co." develops drilling rigs, computer-controlled since 1979, for example, in 1981, was designed rig CRS-K-10A program-controlled. This model is a small hydraulic machine with built-in micro-computer, which is designed for geological survey and drilling cementing wells up to 100 m in the construction of dams and dikes. Developers reasonably believe that the efficacy and safety of drilling greatly depend on the skill of the operator, driller. Therefore, the goal of developing a drilling machine with built-in computers is to provide high reliability, efficiency and safety in the drilling machine, regardless of qualifications driller and, especially, in the opening of the possibility of automatic drilling machine given the depth of the well in unknown geological conditions. Management system collects information on the six parameters and a given program produces the optimum machine control tripping also automated. The company's specialists argue that the use of programmable machines will provide better economic effect.

In Germany in 1989, began to optimize the drilling process on the basis of microelectronics in the development of ore deposits of large diameter wells. Initiated research development work show that their results can be used in other types of drilling.

The authors believe that the automatic control when drilling large diameter allows you to:

Increase drilling speed while reducing the specific energy consumption of wear;

Create conditions for the maintenance of the drilling machine by one person, one brigade service multiple machines;

Reduce unproductive time at the beginning and end of the shift;

Maximize drilling speed while minimizing costs.

In the development of diagnostics provides drilling rig, recording and display mode parameters of drilling and some modes. Optimization of drilling is planned to be implemented through adaptive control using computing devices.

In a review of the analysis of the state of exploration drilling and the direction of its development, foreign experts say that the further development of this method is likely to lead to an increase | performance drilling process automation to reduce the time for tripping and provide adaptive control of drilling parameters with the search for optimal combinations feedrate axial load, torque and rotational speed of the drill string [12]. The Special Design Bureau drilling Automation (SPKBBA) computer-based middle class developed station automatic optimization and geological and technological control of drilling deep wells (SAOB) designed for operational management of the drilling process with a view to optimizing, detection and prevention of complications and emergencies , emergency response, automatic data collection, processing, storage and issuance of geological, technological and technical and economic information about the process of drilling deep wells for oil and gas.

The main functions of the following stations: optimization of drilling, ensuring the achievement of the extreme value of optimality criterion (maximum speed voyage or footage per bit, the minimum cost of 1 m of penetration); adjustment of the selected optimum mode drilling drilling conditions change during the voyage; recognition at an early stage pre-emergency and emergency situations and probabilistic assessment of the time of their occurrence; accumulation, storage and presentation in various forms of geological and technological information on the drilling process, a multiple of 1 m drilling or flight.

The station can operate with any oil rigs, staffed by a set of sensors and technology designed for drilling of production and exploratory wells for oil and gas depth of 4000-6500 m. In the first place it is advisable to use the station to new areas of study in a low cuts and unreliable similar geological and technological information on drilling conditions.

The second most significant development with real output in manufacturing, automatic process control system uglubki well in optimal conditions (avtoburilschik "Uzbekistan 2A"), established in methodical expedition of Geological and Economic Research. The system includes a driller cabin placed in it computationally complex control, the process variable transmitter and an actuator to control the brake lever hoist. The system is designed to provide automatic rotary drilling process and the turbine means deep wells for oil and gas drilling rigs serial using cone bits. The system serves one operator. Computational and managing complex includes a computing unit, one based on the serial microcomputer "Elektronika S5-12", remote control, communications device with the object and the operator, reporting, generating control signals, DTP PL-150 and power supply system. The system is designed to receive and analyze information about the drilling process on the signals of the sensors of process parameters, as well as logical and mathematical processing it in accordance with the control algorithm, the formation of information and control signals and provide all of the power supply device.

In accordance with the control algorithm produces the weighing system of the drilling tool burnishing bit search axis values ??of the effective WOB and maintaining it during drilling. If further drilling is not economically feasible, the system generates a signal the end of the flight and stops the supply of the instrument. In addition, the system provides trouble-free drilling, timely determining wear bearing roller cone bit. Information about the process of drilling and operating conditions of equipment issued driller using the arrow appliances, digital display, luminous banners, as well as recorded on punched tape, which may be the source document for the formation of information bank and serves as the reference document objectively represents the state of drilling tools and equipment displaying the work of drilling crew.

The system is designed for drilling depth 3500-4000 m. Power consumption 0.5 kW. As the results of field tests, the use of the system allows to reduce bit consumption and time of posting well at 15-20%, with full fail-safety.

Firm "Dayment Boart" created Hydroficated installation with a movable tube holder and rotator, which is used in the management of the microprocessor. [13] With microprocessor coordinated functioning of hydraulic control elements, calculations are performed various operations and controlled their compliance with previously accepted job. During tripping operations microprocessor synchronizes firing sequence gidropatrona spinner and pipe holder moving up and down, and controls the time intervals between the passage of successive signals.

Possible expansion of the functions of management: a complete reproduction of the various programs, pre-exhaust experimentally; protection for maximum torque at screwing and unscrewing drill pipes; limit limit axial load during drilling, which increases the reliability of the drill string, and so on. d. provide for the registration and processing of information about the drilling process, which will then be used to interpret the process and geological section.

For drilling exploratory wells for solid minerals developed a system of automatic optimization of process control drilling SAOPB-1. The system is designed for automatic process control drilling diamond rock-breaking tool for a given optimal uglubki crowns per revolution or a given mechanical speed and can be used on all drilling machines with hydraulic feed system used in diamond drilling.

Virtually system is an analog knob and differs from the known high reliability and efficiency, which depend on the correct choice in each case uglubki crowns per revolution given by driller (technology). At discrepancy given uglubki (drilling speed) drilling conditions, ie, in the case of overspeed drilling, optimal for the given conditions, fire protection on power consumption or mud pressure in the discharge line of the pump and wash it automatically "undermining" tool. Frequent repetition of this situation is a signal of the need to reduce the set uglubki per revolution.

Optimum values ??defined uglubki per revolution for each system (rock-bit) is selected by a special, previously developed, chart or determined empirically by a special technique in the drilling process.

Unconditional credit to developers is that they are the first on the basis of a large amount of drilling have proven the benefits of automated process control diamond drilling.

Drawback system - limited ability to improve that is inherent in all analog solutions. Introducing elements of adaptation, improvement of control algorithms entail great difficulty and, therefore, more expensive systems.

In early 1999, Moscow Special Design Bureau of Geophysical Instrument Engineering and Informatics "Halo" has released a system of technological control of drilling parameters "BHT-micro." System is recommended Gosgortechnadzor RF for implementation in all drilling companies, primarily as safety equipment drilling operations and to prevent accidents.

System "BHT-micro" in functionality similar to such means, produced by the well-known "Martin-Decker". The cost of "BHT-micro" 4-6 times less, and taking into account the costs of training, preventive maintenance and repair, call specialists in an emergency, and so on. N., The cost ratio is further increased in favor of the "BHT-micro" .

Chapter 3. Description of the device collection and processing of information on the status of quality bureniyaNeobhodimoe condition for solving the problem of automatic control of drilling process - to obtain information on the status of the process with the required speed and accuracy. Required efficiency information determined by the need of process control in real time, ie. E. The control actions should be formed without delay (or acceptable delay) with respect to changes in the status of the controlled process. This is ensured by the fact that the process parameters to be measured with a frequency that is optimal for the temporal characteristics of the drilling process, which include duration transients in feed drive drilling rig, the inertial properties of the drill string, the non-stationary nature of the process. Further, timing characteristics substantially depend on the geotechnical conditions drilling: well depth, the physico-mechanical properties of the rock drilled, types and configurations of drill pipe of the drill string, the properties of the cleaning agent washing mode wells etc. The calculation of the exact time characteristics is possible only on the basis of adequate mathematical description of the drilling process (model) is determined not only qualitative but also quantitative depending accurate input and output variables characterizing the process of drilling for specific geological and technical conditions.

However, the currently existing mathematical descriptions of the drilling process are qualitative in nature and allow only a rough estimate is sufficient (from a few to several tens of seconds) time characteristics of the drilling process. This assessment is also confirmed by numerous experimental data. Thus, the timing characteristics of the drilling process, and hence the parameters and sampling frequency can not be accurately determined by calculation. At this stage of development of automated process control drilling is worthwhile to consider the period of the survey process parameters as constant, a specific value for which certain conditions set by the relevant experimental techniques.

According to experimental studies and tests in various drilling rigs (SKB-4, 5, 8, ZIF-650) wells to a depth of 100-300 m at a polling period parameters sobespechivayutsya quite satisfactory quality stabilization regime drilling parameters, timely and effective response to changes processes and elimination of abnormal processing situations in the early stages of their development. With such large periods of the survey analysis parameters can not be high in drilling processes, such as vibration, the range of which is, according to various estimates, from hundreds of hertz to tens of kilohertz. To implement the survey parameters such high frequencies requires special hardware and complicated mathematical apparatus measurement processing. Therefore, at present it is advisable to conduct special studies of high-drilling processes and build on the results management advice drilling mode, for example, as a system of constraints.

For management purposes, the drilling mode in real time can be limited solution to the problem of forming a time series of measurements (trend), which is adequate to real changes in the state laws of the drilling process, which allows to detect the interdependence of parameters and predict trends in the state of the process. The quality of the formation of the trend of each parameter drilling as determined by the accuracy of measurements of individual points (instantaneous values) that make up the trend.

The procedure for obtaining the instantaneous value of a parameter representing a continuous electrical signal is the quantization level of the signal which is continuous in the range of values ??of the function l (t) is selected a finite number of discrete values ??of distribution functions, for example, evenly across the entire range . At the time of the measurement values ??of the function l (t) is replaced by the value of the nearest discrete level. The function thus becomes a stepped form (Fig. Number). In the quantization error occurs quantization determined quantization step. With a uniform quantization in terms of the maximum value of the reduced quantization error

somewhere range of parameters; (Q-1) - number of intervals (steps) quantization, q-1 = ().

However, the main problem lies in the selection of the desired signal on the background of random noise, the source of which is not the measuring path and stochastic disturbances occurring during the drilling process and is a consequence of changing drilling conditions and unstable operation of drilling equipment. The problem consists in shaping the drilling parameter measurements required at any given time so that the sum of these measurements reflect the natural change of the parameter within the analyzed time interval. In developed this diploma system, said the problem is solved as follows:

Fig. Quantization of the signal level continuous.

Formation of a single measurement of each type of parameters is performed by a certain number of surveys ADC, which is regarded as a statistical sample of n observed values ??of the measured quantity, ..., (a survey ADC is a one time software triggering ADC to measure the instantaneous value of a given parameter at the time of launch, the performance of the ADC ADC0816 allows polls a frequency of 10-30 Hz depending on the amplitude of the measured signal). The value of the parameter is calculated sample mean - the first time the sampling distribution of the random variable. For one-dimensional distributions - is the arithmetic mean of the elements of the sample ...


When processing statistical sampling arithmetic mean is an estimate of the expectation, the accuracy of which depends on the number of samples n. As in the case of the formation of n measurements of the parameters should be chosen for reasons of obtaining sufficient accuracy for the estimation of the accuracy for small sample sizes can take advantage of the best linear estimates of the standard deviation S [2], for example,

for n = 2,

for n = 4,

for n = 8 (7.2)

somewhere variational series, ie, values ??are arranged in ascending order.

For example, when eight polls ADC channel mechanical skorostipolucheny the following values:

n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Cm / h 156 147 149 152 151 155 144 148

Calculating the x and S according to (7.1) and (7.2), for different values ??of n, we obtain the following results (Table. Xxx).

Table xxx

n Variational series


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

2,147,156 ---- --- --- --- --- --- 151.1 7.98

4 147 149 152 156 --- --- --- --- 151 4.41

8 144 147 148 149 151 152 155 156 150.25 3.36

Obviously, increasing the accuracy of formation of n increases and measurement with n = 4 and n = 8 is quite satisfactory. Furthermore, to identify trends in the condition of forming the drilling accuracy of measurement of various parameters may be unequal. For example, the speed and the mechanical torque (power) as the most informative parameters must be measured with high precision (n = 8) than the axial load and rotational speed (n = 4).

For the parameters of the washing liquid flow and pressure at the pump, the changes which are pulsating in nature, we can restrict n = 2.

The parameters are not processed in terms of the physical parameters of the drilling, and in some abstract units (codes ADC) proportional to the measured voltage of the respective sensor signal. The next stage in the formation of measurement - scaling, t. E. Transfer measured values, expressed in ADC codes in physical units. Such a transformation is as follows:


somewhere value of i - th drilling parameters in physical units - the scale factor of i - th parameter; - the value of the i - th parameter codes ADC.

For some parameters require additional mathematical processing associated with the peculiarities of their measurement. For example, when measuring the axial load on the rock cutting tool is necessary to consider the weight of the projectile in dependence on how the drilling is performed: with the additional loading or unloading. This additional processing is performed by special routines that take into account the specific characteristics of drilling rigs and sensors of technological parameters. The system of automatic control of the drilling process should be the ability to change certain characteristics of the subsystem survey and initial processing of information by typing in the relevant data from the remote system operator. These characteristics include the measurement period settings, the number of surveys to measure the scale factors, the choice of the desired routines. These changes must be made by a qualified service instrumentation expedition or party during commissioning and verification work.

As described above, evaluation and prediction of changes in the state of the drilling process and is carried out by forming a time series analysis (trend) of each of the measured parameters. Directly trend analysis, evaluation and prediction of changes in the state of the process is carried out by other subsystems of the automatic control of the drilling process. Task acquisition subsystem and processing of information - the formation of a trend that, in terms of program implementation should be an array of memory cells that stores values ??sorted in time.

Such a memory array formed using the so-called stack of data storage, the essence of which is that in the memory array of fixed volume N, containing N values ??of a certain variable, a new (N + 1) the value of this variable is placed into the array (stack) of by excluding from it by a certain rule of one of the N elements. Rules of entry in the stack can be "first come - first out", "first come - last out", and so on. N. In this case, the stack of data storage is organized as follows.

Part of RAM computer, which is organized operational information base is divided into blocks, including 64 memory cells. The number of blocks is equal to the maximum number of parameters, and the drilling process parameters used in the system. Each of these blocks is a corresponding parameter stack; record information to all stacks implemented by the rule "first come - first out". Suppose that at time what a stack, for example stack measurements were 64 previous values ??(Fig. 7.2), (,, ...).

At the time vremenibylo formed another dimension that must be placed on the stack will be moved to the 63th element - 62-th element, and thus to the "peak" of the stack, ie. E. To1 th element in which the value will be placed and znacheniebudet removed from the stack. Therefore, the stack will fit each new measurement of this parameter.

Recording all stacks produced synchronously with the period t. E. At a time (where K - number of measurement cycle) are formed all parameters and measurement values ??are recorded in the corresponding stacks. At any given time stacks

Waiting expiration

Yes I Am



Yes I Am


Fig. Flowchart XXX

Yes algorithm works


collection and initial

Information Processing

there are 64 measurements for each of the parameters of the drilling process, ordered in time and to assess the change of parameters in the time interval otdo. For example, Ac interval estimation of measurement parameters sostavits.

It is obvious that, having data for a relatively long period of time, we can reliably identify emerging changes in the state of the process and to predict trends in the development of technological situations. The analysis generated so time series produced by other subsystems of the system on mathematical methods and algorithms related tasks, solve each of the subsystems.

The methods described above survey, primary processing and storage of information about the parameters and performance drilling process implemented software module ACS process, which takes control loop, with periodomDanny software module in the system has the highest priority.

All the necessary information is contained in the table survey parameters (Fig. Xxxx) and determines the desired mode and measurement performance. The block diagram of the module shown in Fig. xxxx.

An important advantage of such a structure of the subsystem - the ability to easily modify or replace the subroutine parameter measurements, and hence the opportunity to work with a variety of sensors and instrumentation.

Chapter 4. Development of the concept of a communication device of a personal computer with the object of automation.

4.1 Description of the automated process control system of drilling Zoe 1.1.

Zoya system 1.1 is designed to monitor drilling parameters for the purpose of operational management and optimization of drilling for oil and gas and provides:

Automatic data collection and processing with the expectation derived parameters and view the current information in graphic form on the display means and registration driller and driller;

Documentation of the results of drilling in the digital-to-analog and graphical form, including a report for a change,

Control of process parameters for user-set value with light and sound signaling of these events;

Alarm settings when exiting "weight on the hook", "inlet pressure" for the limits with the issue of blocking signals to the appropriate drilling equipment;

Autonomous functioning remote driller when you turn off the computer;

High operational reliability and durability with minimal maintenance and metrology.

To the need for any types of elements of automatic control system includes sensors of technological parameters. Purpose Sensor - Transformation controlled or manipulated variable to the value of another kind, suitable for further use.

The system contains the following sensors:

The hook weight sensor is mounted on the fixed branch wireline. As the primary device used in the sensor strain gauge force measuring element.

Sensor control torque on the rotor (strain) is mounted on the rotor drive gearbox instead of fixing earrings-tie or fixing support. Controlled by acting on the sensor tensile or compression.

Sensor control of pump strokes (inductive proximity sensor) is installed on the drive pulley pump.

Sensor control channel rotor speed determines the speed of rotation of the drive shaft of the rotor. As the primary device used proximity sensor. Mounted on the transmission.

The pressure sensor (tensoresistance) is installed in the discharge line.

Depth sensor provides background information for calculating the depth of the face, feeding position talbloka. The sensor is connected to a chain drive shaft of the winch.

Sender-change indicator mud flow rate at the outlet (in the trench) converts the deflection angle of the blade from a vertical position into an electric signal depending on the level and flow velocity.

In the combined sensor density - the level of mud (BR) BR and density at the output as a primary device applies a differential pressure gauge. Hydrostatic pressure measured immersed in mud tubes, through which is blown pressurized air.

Sensor total content of combustible gases, made on the basis of the primary thermochemical converter is mounted with the sensor-indicator changes in flow at the outlet. Similar sensors are used to monitor the gas content and signaling in the hazardous area.

BR temperature sensor input and output is based on a special chip and mounted respectively in the working tank and the trough.

The air temperature sensor (similar) placed in the cable junction box.

Torque sensor on the key (strain) is installed on the drive cable key.

Torque sensor on turbodrills (strain) is set to stop the rotor assembly.

Information from the sensors is transmitted by cable unit UE, where the conversion and signal processing, and then into the remote computer and the driller.

Information and metrological characteristics are given in full in the attached table .

Table .

Controlled parameter

Parameter name, unit control range

1 Weight on hook, kN

0 - 5000; 0 - 4000

0 - 3000; 0 - 2500

0 - 2000; 0-1500

2 Weight on bit, 0-500 kN

3. The torque on the rotor kNm 0-60 0-30

4. Inlet pressure, MPa 0-40

5 Flow inlet l / 0-100

6 RPM rotor / min 0-300

7 Number of courses each pump (up to three), stroke / min 0-125

8 Changing the flow at the exit, 0-99%

9. Serve m 0-99,9

10. The position of the traveling block, m 0-60 0-45

11 The depth of the face, m 0 -9999

12 bit position of slaughter, m 0 - 9999

13 Current Date, Time -

14. Time 1 m drilling penetration, min / m 0-1000

15. ROP, m / h 0-200

16. The rate of ACT, m / s 0-3

17. Time drill bit, min 0-999999

18. footage per bit, 0-999 m

19. The density of the drilling fluid (BR), g / cc 0.8-2.6

20. Level BR, m

0.4-2.0; 0.8-2.4


21 The total volume of the BR, MOH 0 - 999.9

22. Change in the total volume of the BR, 0-500 cubic

23 The total content of combustible gases, 0-50% LEL

24. Time on the key kNm 0-60

25. Moment turbodrill, 0-30 kNm

26 Temperature at the inlet and outlet, C 0-100

27 Air temperature, C 0-100

28. The density of the washing liquid in the gutter, g / cc 0.8-2.6

4.2 Place the USO in ACS drilling process

ACS must have the ability and means of communication with the control object. However, the main differences between data processing systems and process control system is that the latter should be able to get real-time information about the status of the control object, act on this information and automatically manages the course of the process. To solve these problems a computer, which is built on the basis of APCS must be of class control computers (SHI), t. E. Is a managed computer system (CRM) CRM can be defined as a computing machine that focuses on automatic reception and processing of information coming into the management process, and making the control actions directly to the executive bodies of the process equipment. This orientation provides a device with the object (USO) (Fig. Mmm) - a set of specialized units for the exchange of information between the control computer and object management. Distinguish between passive and active USO.

Passive devices execute commands survey sensors and command the control actions. These kits contain input and output blocks and a control unit. The structure of the input and output units capable of receiving analog and discrete data, the inverter input forms of information such as analog-to-code and code-analog switches, amplifiers and so on. N. The control unit provides the necessary exchange of information with the control computer and control of all units of the device, decodes commands from a computer, and provides the necessary exchange of information through the blocks of input-output

Active USO can work offline tracking the status of the managed object (process), as well as perform certain algorithms convert information such as registration algorithm parameters and alerting them of the rules, regulation, one of the relatively simple laws, and others. Building on the USO the active principle can improve the reliability of PCS as a whole and the efficiency of the control computer by reducing the flow of information from the control object to the control computer.

Fig. Typical structure ACS-based control computer.

This diploma is designed functionally complete design of the communication device with the object in the collection and processing of information on the state of the drilling process (ris.tststs). System for collecting and processing information about the state of the drilling process is the most important functional subsystems PCS Zoe.

Basically, the circuit is designed for integrated circuits TTL series K555 and K155. This model is a practical, inexpensive, and easy and allows you to associate any type of sensor with the IBM PC or equivalent computer. Examines in detail the principles of operation of the system bus IBM PC and basic hardware interface, which is connected with the above structure and operation of the system interrupts, counters and timers.

4.1 Description of the scheme

In developing a scheme can be used up to 64 ports - 32 input and 32 output. Table xxx given port allocation board.

Table xxx.


port selection

The port number

(16 hexadecimal)


tion function chip

E0 300 PORTA


A port of Intel 8255

E1 301 PORTB


In 8255 Intel port

E2 302 PORTC


port with an Intel 8255



Intel Management 8255

E4 304 CNT0 Counter 0 8253 Intel

E5 305 CNT1 Counter 1 Intel 8253

E6 306 CNT2 counter 2 Intel 8253


Timer / counter

Intel Management 8253

E8 308 ADC


Address data

E9 309 STAT






E11 30B DACO



E12 30C GATE

Timer / counter


E13 30D

The port handles


E14 30E is not involved.

E15 30F is not involved.

E16 310 is not activated.

E17 311 is not activated.

E18 312 is not activated.

E19 313 is not activated.

E20 314 is not activated.

E21 315 is not activated.

E22 316 is not activated.

E23 317 is not activated.

E24 318 is not activated.

E25 319 is not activated.

E26 31A is not involved.

E27 31B is not activated.

E28 31C is not involved.

E29 31D is not involved.

E30 31E is not involved.

E31 31F is not involved.

Parallel Port IO

Although an IBM PC and has a very powerful means of data processing, one that it is not enough. He also needs and means of interaction with the outside world. To exchange data between the computer and peripheral hardware needed input-output and software.

Timing diagrams

The key to the successful establishment of any interface with the system is to ensure the compatibility of the temporal distribution of his work with the same parameters of the system bus. In timing diagrams and tables shown in Fig. 3.5, provides detailed information on the temporal distribution of bus cycles of writing and reading for explosives.

Bus cycle usually consists of four working periods of duration T (machine cycle), but the computer automatically enters into this cycle an additional waiting period (TW). Thus, the entire bus cycle computer BB comprises at least five periods T, i.e. its duration is equal to about 1.05 microseconds. The bus cycle can be further increased by adjusting the duration of the ready signal (10 CH RDY) on the system bus. Please note that the findings of the A16-A19 address bus computer is not transferred to the active state during bus cycles explosives.

Read bus cycle is initiated by BB every time the microprocessor 8088 executes the command IN. During the period T1 is switched to the active state of the signal line ALE, which is issued by a cut sign that the level of AO-A15 address bus contain valid port address of explosives. During a period T2, an active state control signal transferred IOR, which indicates that the response of the addressed input port must be in the withdrawal of his content on the data bus. At the beginning of period T4 processor reads the information from the data bus, and then the signal line IOR transferred to inactive status.

Bus write cycle is initiated by BB every time the 8088 executes the command OUT. During the period T1 is transferred to the active state control signal ALE, which is issued by the slice indication that AO-A15 bits of the address bus (ports contain a valid address. Then, during the period T2 is switched to the active state signal IOW, which indicates the selected output port, it should be considered that the contents of the data bus. Further, during this same period, the CPU 8088 outputs to the bus data to be supplied to the output port. In the beginning of period T4 IOW signal becomes inactive and the CPU 8088 deletes the data from the bus.

The table in Figure 3.5, provides information on the temporal relationship in the form of data for the worst case the maximum and minimum. Consequently, these data are valid for all loading conditions of the tire and at all levels of supply voltages within the specified tolerances.

Fig. 3.5. Timing diagram of the input port output. Temporal distribution of the bus cycle for reading input port (a) Interim distribution of the bus write cycle to the output port (b).

Pairing a PC computer with a chip IO port such as the Intel 8255

Programmable timer / counter

Programmable Timer ICs KR580VI3 contains three independent 16-bit counter, performing account in the opposite direction. Pre-installation allows you to specify a binary or BCD algorithm accounts, each of the counters can operate in one of six modes:

0. Interrupt terminal accounts;

1. Single shot;

2. The generator pulse;

3. Generator meander;

4. A single software generated strobe signal;

5. A single hardware strobe signal.

The repetition frequency of clock pulses may be in the range up to 2.5 MHz.

In the developed device based on a timer-counter IC 8253 implemented counting circuit. A voltage source connected between 5 points Vcci GND. Lines D0-D7 are connected to the buffered data bus.


On ris.rrr shows the internal organization of circuit 8-bit DAC AD 558 company Analog Devices. When both control chip select lines are active, 8-bit latch receives data bytes from the data bus. This 8-bit number stored in latch up until the next chip is not selected. Each bit controls the state of the lock transistor switch operating at R = 2R resistor with a laser-trimmed matrix consisting of 16 resistors. By the end of DU connected resistor chain, through which the user can set the range of the output signal.

Fig. LLL shows how to connect using the DAC findings on the interface board. Line port selection E11 (port ZOVN) initializes the DAC selection as an output port. When switching control line output voltage ranges 0 ... 2.56 V.

The presence of two common (ground) pins on the chip AD558 is typical for devices that implement both analog and digital functions. These conclusions are designed to minimize resistive coupling and noise in circuits passing the analog signal.

To reduce the noise (disturbance) in a system containing both analog and digital components, provides good practical results in the system throughout the use of separate wires common for analog and digital circuits and the common connection of these wires to one another only at one point.

Analog-to-digital converter

Justification of the choice of ADC

4.2 Calculation of performance

System performance is calculated by estimating the total time spent per conversion. List of all the delays called a temporary budget, facilitates the calculation of performance.

Temporary budget

While capturing SHA 6 ms

The settling time of the output signal SHA 1mks

ADC conversion time of 110 ms

Delay associated with the execution of the command output (OUT) and the input (IN) 40 ms

The total time of 157 ms conversion

Maximum capacity 6369 count / c


4.3 Calculation of accuracy

For the calculation accuracy of the system uses the list of major sources of error in the system, from its analogue input to digital output. Other errors that are not listed in the table of the budget of the errors (error resulting from the drop in voltage at the output of SHA in storage mode, etc.) are negligibly small (no more than 0.01%)

Budget errors

Uncertainty voltage SHA 0.2%

SHA gain error of 0.01%

ADC quantization uncertainty in 0.2%

Offset error, gain and non-linearity of the ADC 0.3%

ADC error associated with the drift of a reference signal of 0.1%

The maximum total error (algebraic sum) 0.81%

Full static error (RMS) 0.42

This ensures accuracy of better than 1%.

Chapter5. Software Development

Software development technique involves several stages, which largely coincide with the stages of development of the system as a whole

1) The exact formulation of the problem;

2) the choice of algorithms and their expression in terms and concepts specific operating system and hardware,

3) The choice of programming language,

4) specification of the program structure,

5) coding (programming)

6) The program debugging and testing test cases,

7) review of the results of the previous stages of debugging,

8) documentary support.

The software is divided into general and special. Common software APCS is that part of the software, which is usually supplied with the computer equipment. The most important part of the overall software - operating system, which is a set of programs that manage the computing process and implementing the most common algorithms for data processing and management of ICC standard for a particular computer. The need for an operating system in the case of control computers caused by two main factors: the effective use of computing resources, such as time and computer memory and speed of reaction to events in the process. The operating system consists of a main program, called the supervisor or monitor, and a set of system-specific routines that are running the main program. Operating system software APCS is that "computing environment," in which there are special programs to provide custom automated process control. The operating system provides the system-wide procedures, as well as all standard operations used in the work program modules of special software.

For system-wide procedures include:

Allocation of CPU resources between software modules in accordance with their priorities;

Work with the system interrupt and start or stop the individual modules in accordance with the state of the system interruptions;

Synchronization of software modules by the operating subsystem synchronization of events in order to implement the required causal relationships and sequences in the management process;

Organization of a single service time within the system and perform all required operations associated with the use of absolute or relative time values ??(information about the current time of day, the time intervals, timing defined process steps, and so on. N.);

Monitoring and diagnostics functionality of the control computer complex.

Develop a program to display information about the process parameters on the screen computer.

Using this diploma designed motherboards and graphics cards a personal computer, you can convert the computer into a digital oscilloscope for the collection and processing of analog data on the state of the drilling process.

The program for the digital oscilloscope is written in C language. This product is intended for visualization of parameters from the sensors, which greatly facilitates subsequent analysis. The program is able to receive on one channel and to reproduce an analog signal from the selected sampling rate. Realized functions are allowed to manipulate data in different ways, in particular to carry out low pass filtering, differentiation and integration. In the development of the C compiler used by Microsoft. Program listing is presented in Annex 1.

Developing BASIC program for controlling the operation of the ADC

Cycle INP and OUT instructions executed in BASIC for about 5 ms, so that the sampling frequency is limited to slightly less than 200 count / c. The program is presented in Annex 2.

Develop a program to retrieve data from the ADC

The program is written in C for the sample from the ADC channel 1 with an interval of 5 ms and sending each of the selected values ??in the DAC. Program listing is presented in Annex 3.

© -