TABLE OF CONTENTS
The economic part 6
1. The organization of the enterprise 7
1.1.Tseli and objectives of the projected enterprise 7
1.2.Uchrediteli, state enterprise 8
1.3.Predpolagaemy activity 10
2.Proektirovanie Enterprise 11
2.1.Vybor and justification of the number of jobs 11
2.2.Raschet Area 11
2.3.Osnaschenie jobs 11
2.4.Usloviya truda.Ohrana work 14
2.5.Tehnika security in the repair apparatus 16
2.6.Balansovy calculation logistical 17
2.7.Smeta fuel costs and energy 18
2.8.Smeta shop expenses 20
3.Raschet technical and economic indicators 24
3.1.Raschet payroll 24
3.2.Raschet repair cost 26
3.3.Raspredelenie profit 27
3.4.Raschet indicators of economic efficiency of enterprises 27
Application. Charter of a limited liability "Lightning" 30
Technological part 35
4.Analiz work concept chroma block BC-10 36
6.Raschet reliability 43
6.1.Raschet load factors and the failure rate of 43 elements
6.2.Raschet MTBF 51
6.3.Raschet probability of failure-free operation time depends on the operating unit 51
6.4.Raschet probability of failure-free operation after replacing the 52
6.5.Raschet maintainability indicators 52
7.Tehnologiya repair and adjustment 54
7.1.Analiz possible malfunctions 54
7.2.Standartnye repair operation 54
7.3.Perechen repair operations and adjustments 56
7.4.Vybor instrumentation 56
7.5.Metodika adjustment 57
7.6.Kontrol parameters after repair 59
The end of the nineteenth century was marked by new discoveries and inventions. So, in 1873, Russian scientists A.N.Ladyginym invented the incandescent electric lamp, opened the phenomenon of internal and external photoelectric effect, the laws of which are set A.G.Stoletovym in 1888.
At this time, there were the first projects of television systems. One of them was proposed in 1875 by American John. Keri. The project was supposed to lay the image being transmitted to a large number of small size of individual elements, each of which is characterized by a certain brightness. Because of the complexity of system implementation not found practical application.
The following projects have been proposed television systems almost simultaneously and independently in 1879 by the Portuguese scientist De Paiva and in 1880 Russian scientist P.I.Bahmetevym. These projects contained the idea of ??a coherent image transmission elements, ie, the idea of ??image scanning.
The most perfect electronic television was introduced only after the development of electronic converters optical image to an electric signal and transmitting television tubes.
New qualitative leap in the development of television occurred in 1967, when there was a regular color TV.
Currently available many models televizorov.S every release they are improving. The main directions of improvement TVs associated with an increase of their functionality and ease of operation, with increased reliability and reduced power consumption. For these purposes, the following devices have been developed: a two-standard modules chrominance signals suitable for receiving, as a coded SECAM system and the PAL system; radio modules, designed to receive TV signals on the Russian and Western European standards; wireless remote control at the infrared; program selecting unit for eight or more channels with digital display of each of them; board external switching for connecting a VCR or a computer; module frame scanning on chips; module with line transformer acting simultaneously as a voltage multiplier with regulators focusing and accelerating voltage; switching power supply, which controls the operation of the chip key stage; module standby mode. Have been applied in televisions and improvements such as the automatic maintenance of white balance during the operation, which contributes to the correct reproduction of primary colors, screen blanking CRT device in case of failure of vertical deflection device and disconnect the TV from the mains supply in an emergency and after television broadcasts. Cluster modular design allows replacement of TVs one or more modules, keeping intact all the rest.
Currently, the assortment of portable TVs with screen sizes of 25, 32 and 42 cm. Also just beginning to launch portable color LCD TV. Has been issuing color TV models 1UPTST-32 4UPTST-32 4UPTST-25. These TVs are used switching power supply with an internal stabilization of the supply voltage, the device touch selection programs.
The economic part
1. Organization ORGANIZATIONS
1.1.Tseli and tasks designed plant
The main task of an undertaking is to repair and adjustment of household electronic equipment. The objectives of the company are:
1) offer first-class customer service;
2) to maximize profits;
3) to achieve the highest level of service;
4) over time to increase the number of services;
5) provide customers with warranty.
To perform these tasks primarily nuzhno top quality training of employees, knowledge of the business, the possession of entrepreneurial experience in this field, the ability to communicate with customers. To do this, a lot of effort, as Russia's economy is now experiencing some economic crisis that has been going on for several years and is characterized by:
1) decline in production;
2) reduction in efficiency;
3) obsolete relations of production;
4) behind the world level;
5) fall in living standards;
6) the monetary and financial crisis, which arose because of the public debt, budget deficit, payments crisis, and many other reasons.
To eliminate the need to improve the economic crisis level of production (introduction of new equipment, increasing the number of incoming raw materials and labor, etc.), To eliminate unprofitable enterprises, improve living standards, to develop competition, ensure freedom of choice of economic activity etc ..
Enterprise for repair of electronic equipment is created for profit and public service delivery. Enterprise "Lightning" is located in the area of ??Szombathely at Kirova. Enterprise "Lightning" for repair of electronic equipment (REA) focuses only on the area of ??Szombathely, since this area is the largest area on the number of people living and, consequently, the number of household electronic equipment. Szombathely area has a small number of jobs, the region is designed for relaxation and hence the load on consumer electronics is very large, it follows expect a large percentage breakdowns of home electronics. Enterprise "Lightning" CEA is engaged in repair maintenance of radio, television technology. Method REPAIR individual, it is characterized by a wide nomenclature repaired electronics. The essence of the organization of repair work is that the whole process of repair of the machine by one Radiomechanic from start to finish. To reduce the risk of losses in the workshop will work five people, three of them Radiomechanic, and with the success of the state can be expanded.
For Radiomechanic and all staff are invited operation in one shift from 9:00 to 18 hours, with a lunch break from 12 to 13 hours. Charter of a limited liability "Lightning" is set out in Appendix 1.
We expect nominal fund of working time:
Pi = [Dk- (DWI + DWP)] * SCI, (1.1)
where Pi - nominal fund of working time, h;
Dk - number of calendar days in the year, days;
Dd - number of days off per year, days;
DWP - the number of holidays per year, days;
SCI - the length of a work shift hours.
Pi = [365- (104 + 9)] * 8 = 2016 hours.
We expect the actual fund of working time
PD = Pi * S * K, (1.2)
where $ g - the actual fund of working time, h;
Pi - nominal fund of working time, h;
S - shift system;
K - coefficient of working time Radiomechanic.
PD = 2016 * 0.95 = 1915 hours.
1.2. Founders, state enterprises
The founders of the limited liability company may be one or more individuals, each of whom will make a stake in the share capital, which is defined by the constituent documents. Participants of a limited liability company liable for its obligations and bear the risk of losses associated with the ongoing activities of the company, within the value of their contributions. The plant will serve six people, since this is the optimal number of workers for this type of enterprise. The enterprise will be the director, accountant, receptionist, three radio mechanic, also Director in addition to directing the company will supply spare parts, equipment, and the receptionist will do the job not only receptionist, and cleaners.
For a given number of Radiomechanic find annual running services
B * Pi * Kvn
Nt =, (1.3)
where Nt - Scope of services, pc;
B - number radiomehannikov, people;
Fn- nominal fund of working time, h;
KVN - coefficient of performance standards;
HBP - standard time for repair of machine parts.
The nominal fund of working time
Pi = [Dk- (DWI + DWP)] * SCI (1.4.)
where Dk-number of days in a calendar year, days;
LW number of holidays per year, days;
DPR is the number of holidays per year, days;
SCI-duration work shift hours.
Pi = [365- (104 + 9)] * 8 = 2016 hours.
2016 * 3 * 1
Nt = 1728 pcs.
Determines the change task enterprise
Nsm =, (1.5)
where Nsm - job change, NY;
Drab - the number of working days per year, days;
Nt - annual work units.
Nsm = = 7 pcs.
Determine the amount of receptionist PTA repair
Ncm * Nob
PP = (1.6.)
where yn - the number of receptionist, people;
Ncm - job change, NY;
SCI - the length of shifts, hours;
Knob - standard service hours.
7 * 0.25
PE = 0.21 people.
From this result we can conclude that the receptionist during the shift will be loaded by 21%.
Staffing companies is shown in Table. 1.1.
Number of Position Salary
radiomechanic 3 700000
cleaner, receptionist 1 500000
Director 1 1000000
Accountant (hired) 1 400000
The main activity of the company is to repair and adjustment of household electronic equipment, primarily portable televisions, and over time can be arranged in the company store on Trade equipment. All services except the warranty offered by the company are paid.
2.1.Vybor and justification of the number of jobs
Since the location of the workshop area neighborhood "Szombathely", the estimated number of people with the equipment izvestno.Mozhno rascchitat volume of services performed, if the company will Radiomechanic 3, a shift they will perform at 6 repairs, since the norm for the repair of 3.5 hours, change time 8 hours, and the number of shifts per year 252, the year it will be about 1600 to perform repairs. Calculating the number of jobs is given in Section 1.2.
When selecting the area of ??an undertaking repair radio television equipment necessary to use the area rate of SNIP II-80-75. For the repair of portable TVs area of ??the shop is 51 m2. In the studio of 10 m2 will occupy the room inspector, 10 m2 will take the finished product warehouse, 15 m2 will take the director and accountant. The total area of ??the company will be 86 m2.
Determine the number of cleaners based on the area of ??the enterprise.
Chub =, (1.7)
where Chub - the number of cleaners, people;
Spr - area businesses, m2;
Noob - area rate for cleaning janitor in one shift, m2.
Chub = 0.19 people.
The resulting figure is a cleaner that will account for only 19% of the normal area cleaning. Therefore, it is advisable to perform a cleaner and man the duty inspector.
The workplace is part of the production area of ??the workshop or studio, designed to perform electrical work. It is equipped with the necessary equipment, instruments, tools, technical documentation and other material and technical means and should provide maximum comfort for Radiomechanic, as this depends on the quality and timing of repairs. Nature of work is reduced mainly to wiring, dismantling, to the replacement of parts, assembly and adjustment, to check on the performance of the product and its characteristics and the parameters of the existing norms. Workshop selected desktop (bench) CPM-69B to perform electrical work for which it is possible to work sitting. Repairs are specially equipped for the table Radiomechanic CPM-69B. The content of the table is given in Table 2.1 radiomehannika.
The content of the table Radiomechanic
to the extent to. 0 - 250
AC voltage, 50 Hz
Rosette with step
control voltage V. 185 - 250
to the extent to. 0 - 250
Four outlet AC voltage
tion, in Hz. 220.50
Socket Soldering, In. 36
DC nest, B. 1 - 15
Workplace Radiomechanic also includes: a chair, a table, cart, stand for a run to repair the unit, first aid kit and fire protection.
The table shown in figure 2.1 Radiomechanic.
Table Radiomechanic CPM-69B (front view)
1-dashboard; 2-in universal power supply; 3 drawers; 4 soldering iron holder; 5-working surface of the table; 6-mirror; 7th Regiment;
The area of ??the top cover of the table should be such that it freely placed on the repaired equipment, soldering, mounting tools and measuring instruments. The table top is covered with insulating material (linoleum, getinaks or rubber). In the drawers are placed tool, building wires and repair-maintenance materials, fasteners (screws, nuts, washers, rivets), soldering materials, drawings, reference books, technical documentation, process maps, etc. On the protective wall of reinforced glass for easy observation of the screen CRT for repair. The power supply of the table, which includes an isolation transformer, autotransformer and transistor power supply, located right under the sink. On the instrument panel mounted on the protective wall mounted socket for the power supply to the TV, appliances, soldering iron and reinforced instrumentation. If general lighting is not enough, an additional set of table lamp. For repairs and adjustments for each TV Radiomechanic needed set of devices, a number of electrical appliances, which are listed in Table. 2.2
List of equipment and KIA
Name Quantity, Power, Price, Cost,
piece of equipment. W th. Th.
KIA rubles. rub.
1.Payalnik 3 120 40000 120000
2.Tester TS4341 3 300000 900000
3. TR-15 March 0836 1,000,000 3,000,000
4.IACHH H1-50 3 90 740000 2220000
S1-72 3 90 500000 1500000
Total: 15 315 2580000 7740000
2.4.Usloviya labor. Labor protection
Organization and improvement of working conditions in the workplace is one of the most important reserves of labor productivity and economic efficiency, as well as the further development of the work- ing man. This is the main manifestation of the social and economic values ??of the organization and improvement of working conditions. Creating a working environment for the systematic productivity growth it is an important task of production, and in terms of work organization used its progressive forms and methods, on a scientific basis to bring down labor costs and labor power working through the introduction of advanced equipment and technology, eliminating the excessive intensification of labor. This creates the ultimate conditions for labor, which will bring genuine human creative satisfaction and will increase productivity. To create optimal conditions in the workplace need to create enterprises on, the optimal performance of these conditions for each type of production, which consist of data on the production environment. Table. 2.3 shows the best performance sanitary-hygienic conditions that will be installed in the workshop organized.
The optimal sanitary conditions in the workshop
Cold index the warm time
air temperature, 0C 20-23 22-25
air, m / s, not more than 0.2 0.2
radiation, mR / h 0.288 0.288
air,% 40-60 60-80
To one of the most important indicators of optimal working conditions must include a balanced diet and working with which is replenished energy necessary for human life. For the normal functioning of the body diet working should not exceed more than 5% of the daily energy, otherwise it may lead to a breach of the exchange, the emergence of overweight and the development of atherosclerosis. Calorie daily diet is determined by the special tables developed by the Russian Ministry of Health. To this figure was carried out will be organized during the lunch break of one hour. One of the important indicators of the working environment is the aesthetic design of industrial premises, workplace, equipment and working tool.
To work a high-performance, maloutomitelnym necessary that technology and environment meet the aesthetic tastes of working. When implementing the requirements of aesthetics in production necessary to carry out the reconstruction of machines, tools manufacturing jobs related to the improvement of their individual elements. Much can be done by such means as the available color. Found that color may affect differently on the person, a soothing, and other annoying. From experience we know that the most favorable climate is created when color color metalorezhuschih machines in a light green color, thermal equipment in light gray, electroplating equipment in blue-green, etc. On creating enterprise heating system will be painted in a light green color, the walls in bright colors. No less important indicator of the production environment is a normal psychological climate in the team, which determines the emotional state workers, which is one of the important factors in the optimum working conditions, and hence the conditions for improving its performance. All these parameters affect the amount of output and the quality of health workers. The workplace should allow you to work in a sitting or standing or sitting position and standing, and meet the requirements of GOST 12.2.032-78 at work sitting and GOST 12.2.033-78 at work standing up. When you select the operating must be considered the severity of physical work, the size of the work area and the need to travel to work in it in the course of the work. To create a comfortable and high performance conditions in the workplace is of great importance and accessories, logistical equipment, so they will meet the ergonomic requirements. An important point in the organization of the workplace is also a definition of them occupied the production area. The need for this is dictated by the fact that, firstly, this area allows you to conveniently with the least expenditure of energy, security and performance to lead the labor process, ie, sootvetsvovala engineering standards, and, secondly, that this area was the largest of at least 4.5 m2 per employee. An equally important issue in the workplace is a question of organization of its service, as it affects not only productivity, but also work and rest working, the rhythm of production.
2.5. Safety device for repair
2.5.1. To ensure safe operation we recommend using elektropoyalniki operating at a voltage not exceeding 35V.
Do not replace the power supply components to the supply voltage. Equipment, powered by an AC 50 Hz voltage 220/127 V, should be properly grounded.
2.5.2. Radiomechanic in the workplace must have the following personal protective equipment: tools with insulated handles, insulating mats, armlets.
2.5.3. Radiomechanic must use tools with insulated handles.
2.5.4. It is prohibited to check for voltage in the circuit "naiskru."
2.5.5. Repair and test live TV is allowed only in cases where the performance of work disconnected from the network TV can not (setup, adjustment, measurement modes, a finding of bad contacts in the switch, etc.)
It should be especially careful to avoid falling under the strain.
2.5.6.Izmeritelnye devices must be connected to a circuit TV after disconnection from the network plug-in and after the removal of residual charges from the circuit elements.
2.5.7. In all cases, work off the TV when there is a risk of contact with live parts, it is necessary to use tools with insulated handles. Work should be one rukoy.Radiomehanik clothing with long sleeves or arm ruffles.
2.5.8. Pike mount the TV, under voltage is prohibited.
2.5.9. When repairing the TV should be installed in such a way as to avoid injury from a possible explosion of the electrolytic capacitor.
2.5.10. Never try to repair the unit included in the grid in damp areas, in areas with earthlings cement or other conductive floors. In these cases, the TV should be directed to the shop.
2.5.11. Never try to repair the machine near a grounded structures.
2.5.12. The workplace should be clean and free of foreign instruments.
2.5.13. When you turn on the TV to a network via the power supply, ensure correct installation of the fuse holder.
2.6. Balance calculation logistics
Need for materials for repair and the cost is shown in Table. 2.4
Cost of materials
Description Quantity Price Sum
materials for 1 rep, for a year, for one, for a year,
kg kg thousand. rubles rubles
Solder 0.003 10 September 90
Rosin September 10 0.003 90
Alcohol 0,003 9 30,270
2.7. Estimated costs for fuel and energy
Calculates the need for energy resources
Pe = * * NVR Nt, (2.1)
where Bae - the need for energy resources, kW;
P - total power of e / equipment and KIA used for repair, W;
HBP - standard time, h;
Nt - the volume of services pcs.
Pe = * 3.5 * 1728 = 4929 kWh.
Determine the planned demand for electricity for lighting
P = SMust TBPAs * * Kc * R, (2.2)
where P - the need for electricity for lighting, W;
SMust - the total capacity of all installed indoor lamps, W;
TBPAs - the average duration of burning lamps per year, h;
Kc - coefficient of demand;
R - loss rate.
P = 500 * 4 * 252 * 1 * 0.7 = 352.8 kWh.
Determine the amount of heated space
V = P * H, (2.3)
where H - height space, m;
V - volume of the room, m3;
P - floor area, m2.
V = 86 * 3.0 = 258 m3.
Expenditure on training and development of production accept as 5% of the basic charge. board Radiomechanic
P = 0.05 * Zo, (2.4)
where P - the cost of training and development of production, rub;
Zo - basic salary Radiomechanic one repair, rub.
The basic salary is determined Radiomechanic% of revenue
Zo = a *% CPU (2.5)
where Zo - basic s / n for a repair, rub;
CPU - planned tsenaodnogo repair, rub;
and% - the percentage of scheduled wage%.
Zo = 0.22 * 70,000 = 15,400 rubles,
P = 0.05 * 770 = 15,400 rubles.
Expenditures for maintenance and equipment ekspluatattsiyu calculated for the following items listed in Table. 2.5.
Expenditures for maintenance and equipment ekspluatattsiyu
Items of expenditure for the year, USD
technological purposes 530,689
2.Amortizatsiya equipment 928,800
and vehicles 2661120
4.Iznos low value
wearing devices 7740000
5.Other expenses 3,000,000
2.8. Estimated shop expenses
Power consumption KIA, power tools, equipment
Pe = * t * D (2.6)
where Bae - the need for electricity for KIA, equipment, KW;
P - power used by KIA, power tools, equipment, W;
t - time for a change of equipment, h;
D - the number of shifts in the period under review.
Pe = * 8 * 252 = 1643.4 kW.
The cost of electricity for technological purposes
Se = Pe * Se (2.7.)
where Se - the cost of electricity for technological purposes, rub;
Bae - the need for electricity for KIA, equipment, KW;
Se - the cost per kWh, rub.
Se = 1643 * 323 = 530,689 rubles.
Amortisation is calculated as 12% of the cost of equipment
S = 0,12 * So, (2.8.)
where Am - depreciation, rub;
So - the cost of equipment, rub.
S = 0.12 * 7,740,000 = 928,800 rubles.
The costs of operating the equipment take for 10% of the basic salary fund Radiomechanic
Reot = 0.1 * FZPo, (2.9.)
where Reot - the cost of operating the equipment, rub;
FZPo - fund basic s / n radio mechanic, rub.
Payroll is calculated as:
FZPo = Zo * Nt, (2.10.)
where Zo - salary for a repair, rub;
Nt - annual service volume.
FZPo = 15400 * 1728 = 26,611,200 rubles,
Reot = 0.1 * 26611200 = 2661120 rubles.
Wear low value instruments may be taken as the value of their
IBMP Smbp = (2.11)
where IBMP - wear IBE, rub;
Smbp - the cost of the IBE, rub.
IBMP = 7740000 rubles.
Estimates of production overheads is made for the following items listed in tabl.2.6.
Of expenditure Amount for the year, USD
1. Tenancy 4500000
2. Protection of the Ministry of Interior 7000000
3. Water 25911
4. Lighting 263245
5. Communication (tel.) 1080000
6. Heating 1702800
Rental costs depend on the conditions of the lease
Sar = Sn * Ca (2.11)
where Sar - the cost of rent for the year, rub;
Sn - the area of ??the leased premises, m2;
Ca - price for 1 m2 rub.
Sar = 86 * 50,000 = 4,300,000 rubles.
Protection of the Ministry of Interior carried out under contracts cost protection 7000000 rubles.
The cost of water
St. SB = Zp * * HB * MPA (2.12)
where St. - the cost of water per year, rub;
SB - cost 1m3vody, rub;
CR - Employees, persons;
HB - flow rate of water per shift, m3;
DSM - the number of shifts in the planning period.
St = 1371 * 3 * 0.025 * 252 = 25911 rubles.
The cost of lighting
WWTP WWTP = C *, (2.13)
where C - cost of 1 kWh, rub;
WWTP - Need of electricity for lighting in the planning period, kW.
WWTP = 323 * 815 = 263,245 rubles.
Cost of services is determined with respect to the license fee for companies Monthly subscription fee for communication services 90000rub.
CER = C * 12 (2.14)
where CERs - the cost of communication services for the year, rub;
C - monthly fee for communication services, rub.
CER = 90000 * 12 = 1080000 rubles.
Tg = V * C (2.15)
where Tg - the cost of heating, rub;
V - volume of the room, m3;
C - cost of heating 1 m3 rubles.
Tg = 258 * 6600 = 1,702,800 rubles.
Total economic costs are calculated indirectly
Rohoz = 0.1 * POF + (PZ + ZW + ZPup) * 12 + O, (2.16)
where Rohoz - oschehozyaystvennye costs RUB;
POF - fund basic salary Radiomechanic, rub;
PEA - Director salary for the month, rub;
ZW - Accountant salary for the month, rub;
ZPup - wages cleaners + receptionist in the past month, rub;
About - deductions from wages director, accountant, receptionist, cleaners (45%), rub.
Rohoz = 0.1 * 26611200 + (1000000 + 400000 + 500000) * 12 +
+ 3800000 = 29261120 rubles.
Non-production costs amount to 5% of the production cost
RVP = 0.05 * Ref, (2.17)
where RVP - Non-manufacturing costs, rub;
Ref - production cost, rub.
RVP = 0.05 * 100 435 866 = 5,021,793, rub.
3. CALCULATION OF TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC
3.1. Calculating payroll
The basic salary is determined Radiomechanic% of revenue
Zo = a *% CPU (3.1)
where Zo - basic s / n for a repair, rub;
CPU - planned price of a repair, rub;
and% - the percentage of scheduled wage%.
Zo = 0.18 * 70,000 = 15,400 rubles.
The sum of the whole volume
FZPo = Zo * Nt, (3.2)
where Nt - annual service units;
FZPo - fund basic s / n, rub;
Zo - salary per repair, rub.
FZPo = 15400 * 1728 = 26,611,200 rubles.
Additional salary Radiomechanic calculated as 10 percent of the basic salary
Rear = Zo * 0.1 (3.3)
where the rear - an additional salary for a repair, rub;
Zo - basic salary per repair, rub.
Rear = 15,400 * 0.1 = 1540 rubles.
The sum of the whole volume
FZPd rear * = Nt, (3.4)
where FZPd - fund additional salary, rub;
Rear - additional salary for a repair, rub;
Nt - annual service volume.
FZPd = 1540 * 1728 = 2661120 rubles.
Deduction for state social insurance is 5.4 per cent of the basic and additional wages
East = 0.054 * (Zo + rear), (3.5)
where the East - contributions for state social insurance, rub;
Zo, rear - basic and additional salary Radiomechanic one repair, rub.
East = 0.054 * (15,400 + 1,540) = 914 rubles.
Pension contributions amount to 28 per cent of the basic and additional wages
Opens = 0.28 * (Zo + rear), (3.6)
where Opens - retirement fund, rub;
Zo - basic salary Radiomechanic one repair, rub.
Rear - additional salary Radiomechanic one repair, rub.
Opens = 0.28 * (15400 + 1540) = 4743 rubles.
Contributions to the State Employment Fund of 2 per cent of the amount of wages
Ozan = 0.02 * (Zo + rear), (3.7)
where Ozan - contributions to the state unemployment fund, rub;
Ozan = 0.02 * (15,400 + 1,540) = 338 rubles.
Contributions for compulsory health insurance is 3.6 percent of the amount of wages
Omed = 0.036 * (Zo + rear), (3.8)
where Omed - contributions for compulsory health insurance, rub;
Omed = 0.036 * (15,400 + 1,540) = 609 rubles.
3.2. Calculate the cost of repairs
After summing up the above calculation we get the cost of the full cost
Costing items shown in Table. 3.1.
Expenditures Amount Amount per year
repair, rub. rub.
1. Materials 260450
2. Basic salary
Radiomechanic 15400 26611200
3. Additional Salary
Radiomechanic 1540 2661120
4. Contributions to the state. soc.
Insurance 914 1580705
5. Contributions to the pension
Foundation 4743 8196249
6. Contributions to the state. Fund
Employment 338 58544
7. Contributions to the mandatory
Health Insurance 609 1053803
8. preparation costs and
development of production 770 1330560
9. Expenditures for maintenance and
ekspluatattsiyu equipment 1540 14860609
costs 8317 14371956
costs 16933 29261120
cost of 51364 100435866
12.Vneproizvodstvennye 2906 5021793
The total cost of 54270 105457659
Cost per repair spol = 54270, rub.
The annual cost of Spol.g. = 105457659 rubles.
The company's profit is determined by the difference between the volume of sales of services without value added tax and the total cost of these services
Pr = Qr-off. (3.9)
where Qr - volume of sales of services, rub .;
Cpoln - total cost of services rubles.
Pr = 120960000-105457659 = 15,502,341 rubles.
3.3 Distribution of profits
In accordance with the Law "On taxes on profits of enterprises and organizations" of the enterprise is carried out deductions to the state budget in the amount of 35% of the profits (if necessary, can be taken into account and other taxes from the income).
Profit distribution after payment of enterprise income tax at a rate of 32% of the profits. The remaining part of the profit in the amount of 10541592 rubles. directed: to the reserve fund (5% or 527,079 rubles), the fund of social and industrial development (60% or 6,324,955 rubles) and material incentive fund employees (35% or 3,689,557 rubles).
3.4. Calculation of the economic efficiency of enterprises
The volume of production and sales of household services Qr = 120960000 rubles.
Value added tax.
VAT = 0.2 * Qr, (3.10)
VAT = 0.2 * 120 960 000 = 24,192,000 rubles.
Average annual output per Radiomechanic
WASH = (3.11)
where Cho - number Radiomechanic, pers.
WASH = 120960000/3 = 40.32 million rubles.
LCF = FZPr FZPdr +, (3.12)
where payroll - annual payroll rubles;
FZPr - payroll Radiomechanic, rub;
FZPdr - payroll of other team members, rub.
LCF = 26611200 + 22800000 = 49411200 rubles.
The average monthly salary Radiomechanic Zr.sr. = 739,200 rubles.
The average monthly salary of other members of the team Zdr.sr. = 633,000 rubles.
P = * 100% (3.13)
= P * 100% = 14.7%
Profitability of an enterprise
Pbal - NDP
RPR = * 100% (3.14)
+ On oo
where Pbal - tax profit of the enterprise, rub;
NDP - income tax, which is 35 percent of the profits;
Oo - fixed assets of the enterprise, rub;
About - current assets of the enterprise, rub.
RPR = * 100% = 15%.
60000000 + 6500000
The cost of 1 ruble services
Full 100 *
W = (3.15)
W = * 100% = 87 kopecks.
4.ANALIZ WORK CONCEPT
Chroma block BC-10
Block color TV "Electronics C-431" is designed as a separate module using four chips D1-D4. It contains the chrominance and luminance channels, the system color burst signal matrix ER, EG, EBi output video amplifiers.
Composite video signal obtained in the unit radio channel for the BC-10 passes through the pin 1 XS1 and chain R78, C2, a composite video signal is input to the amplifier-limiter circuit 1 D1 (through its pin 3). Capacitor C2 is relatively small capacity filters low-frequency components of the video signal. Correction filter frequency (RF) predistortion L3C4R6, tuned to a center frequency of 4.29 MHz chrominance signal makes it stand out from the composite video signal and suppresses the amplitude modulation.
Amplified and limited in the amplifier 1 chastotnomodulirovannye chrominance signals through the keyring comes in two opposite conclusions on 1, 15 chips D1. The key circuit is used to suppress chrominance subcarrier in the signals during the sweep moves backward. Key management scheme is carried out with a mixture of human and horizontal blanking, which are applied to the summing stage 3 chip D1 through its conclusions 6, 7 and pins 5, 6 sockets with XS1 block frame scanning (RBB-10). Limiting amplifier circuit 1 and 2 are the key to the on differential stage. In order to stabilize their regimes applied dc negative feedback (NFB) from the output of the chip D1 (pin 15) to the input (pin 5) via a resistor R30. Mode DC is defined divider R30, R23, and to avoid feedback AC capacitors are C14, C17.
With the withdrawal of 15 chips D1 chrominance signal passes through the channel with a delay of 64 microseconds, which provides ultrasonic delay line is DT2. Input and output matching networks it included: respectively R34, C22, L5 and L6, R43, C30. The detainee chrominance signal through pin 3 chip D4 fed to the input of the amplifier-limiter 1, which compensates for signal attenuation in the delay line and removes the amplitude modulation that occurs because of the inaccuracy of matching the impedance of the delay line DT2.
Undelayed chrominance signal output with 1 chip D1 is supplied to the second amplifier-limiter circuit 3 D4 (pin 1) through a divider R36, R38 and capacitor C27. The outputs of limiting amplifiers 1, 3 detained and undelayed chrominance signals are applied to the inputs of the electronic switcher 2 chip D4. They are controlled by pulses that are produced by trigger 4 chips D1. Since the output circuit 12 these pulses via capacitor C21 and the output circuit 16 are input to D4 switcher 2. As a result of its commutators on one output (pin 15 D4) operating signal UB-Y, and the other (pin 13) - a signal UR- Y.
From these findings, the chrominance signals applied to the inputs of the frequency detectors 4, 5, respectively, "blue" and "red" channels through terminals 9 and 11 of the chip D4. Frequency detectors are designed using the detectors works. Supporting contour detector "blue" channel formed elements L10, C43, R53 and tuned to the frequency of 4.25 MHz, the reference circuit-red detector elements L9, C42, R54 and tuned to 4,406 MHz. Phase shift signal 900 applied to the inputs of the frequency detector, is provided with a capacitor C38, and C39 in blue in the red channel. As a result, the pin 10 is D4 chip color difference signal EB-Y, and on pin 12 - ER-Y.
These signals through filters and R65 C47 R66 C48 respectively received base transistors VT6, VT2 emitter follower circuit in which the emitter includes filters and L8 C45 L7 C44. With loads of the emitter-follower color difference signals are removed through potentiometers R74, R70, regulating their scope, and coupling capacitors C55, C53 to conclusions 8, 9 chip D2. ER-signal Yv of the adjustable chip passes 1, 2 and 5 amps unregulated signal EB-Y- respectively amplifiers 3, 4, 6.
From pin 7, 10 chips D2 enhanced color difference signals are applied to the matrix signal EG-Y, formed on the resistors R35, R27, R37, R28, R26. With Synthesize signal EG-7 amplifier chip Yusilivaetsya D2 (Pin 11, 12). Three color difference signal through the coupling capacitors C25, C26, C29 are fed to the respective terminals 2, 4, 6 chip D3, wherein the primary color signals are matrixed. For their luminance signal matrixing is necessary, which is formed in the corresponding channel.
The input luminance channel signal comes from pin 1 sockets XS1 via a capacitor C1 and potentiometer R4. In the luminance signal channel zadezhivaetsya 0.33 microsecond delay line via DT1. At the entrance it is compatible with using the frequency-dependent divider formed elements R79, C34, R3. The output of the delay line circuit including L1 C3, tuned to the frequency of 4 MHz, which suppresses chrominance signal included in the input composite video signal. Filter L2 C6, has a resonance at a frequency of 6.5 MHz, reduces noise from the audio signal. Resistor R17 and promotes harmonization output from the delay.
The luminance signal is supplied to a variable amplifier 8 (IC 16 to output D2). The gains of the adjustable amplifier 1, 3, 8 are modified by the voltage supplied from the regulator contrast, through the contact sockets 1 XS2, divider R20, R24 and the output circuit 5. Saturation is adjusted by changing the gain of amplifier 2, 4 chip D2 under the influence of the voltage supplied to the output circuit 6 to 9 sockets contact XS1 divider R9, R14.
After amplification in the amplifier 8 luminance signal D2 passes through the clamp circuit chip 9 D2, which is controlled in small pulses coming in contact with the sockets 8 XS1, diode VD1 and the capacitor C12 on the terminal 2 of the chip D2. Applied to the input of BC-10 (pin 8 sockets XS1) impulse lock consists of a horizontal blanking and sync pulses. For the separation of these horizontal sync pulses to the cathode of the diode VD1 divider R12, R13 a voltage is applied, which allows you to open diode only horizontal sync and pass them on pin 2 chip D2. In shaper circuit 9 are formed by pulses, the control key cascaded latch circuit (part 9).
The voltage level defining locking circuit 9 is supplied through the output circuit 14 of D2. For this purpose, the voltage from the potentiometer "Brightness", which is applied to the chip D2 pin 2 sockets XS2, divider R10, R31. Change this voltage level is controlled locking signal EYi thus the brightness of the image. Once the clamp circuit 9 to the luminance signal supplied to the quench circuit 10 inverse scanner moves chip D2. Horizontal and vertical pulses, respectively, with the contacts 5, 6 sockets XS1 through resistors R1, R2 are fed to the base of transistor VT1 key stage. On its collector, a mixture of horizontal and vertical blanking desired amplitude and polarity. These pulses are received through a capacitor C11 to pin 3 of chip D2 and 10 are mixed in a cascade in the luminance signal.
Complicit with the luminance signal output from the blanking circuit D2 (pin 1) through a divider R32, R33 and pin 1 chip D3 enters the Matrix 4-6 signals EG, ER, EB, which also receives the color difference signals. At the entrance of the matrix 4-6 levels are linked to equalize given by potentiometers R51, R55, R47, located in key locking devices 1-3 chip D3. Lower control pulses for them come from pin 5 sockets XS1 via pin 8 chips D3. By varying the clamp voltage input at the apparatus 1, 2, 3 via terminals 15, 13, 11 chip D3 potentiometers R51, R55, R47, produced balance signals ER, EG, EB, the levels of black.
With the matrix output signals 4-6 basic colors in each of the three channels pass through the regulated and non-regulated 7-9 10-12 uisliteli. The gains of stages 7-9 are controlled by potentiometers R44, R42, R41, connected to them through the terminals 3, 5, 7 chip D3, and thereby vary swings signals ER, EG, EB.
With the pin 10, 12, 14 chips D3 signals EB, EG, ERpostupayut to the terminal amplifier (base transistor VT3-VT5). To the outputs 11, 13 chips are connected potentiometers (variable color tone) through the pins 1, 2 sockets HR4 and resistors R63, R64. They allow you to change the ratio of the Range signals ER, EBi thus adjust the color tone. The output video amplifiers are two-stage amplifiers with direct connection. Thus transistors VT3-VT5 amplify the voltage signals and the output transistor VT7-VT9, included as an emitter follower, reduces the effect of the capacitive load CRT (cathode on circuits) video amplifier bandwidth.
Video signals output from the video amplifier, the emitters of transistors VT7-VT9-through dividers R67, R58, R68, R60, R69, R62 and terminals 11, 13, 15 are fed to circuits D3 amplifier stages 12, 11, the chip 10 as a feedback voltage DC and alternating current, defining common video amplifier gains and modes DC. Diodes VD2-VD4 protect the base-emitter voltage of the output transistors from breakdown. Capacitors C50-C52, and C54, C56, C57 provide stability of the video amplifier. With video amplifier outputs signals ER, EB, EGcherez contacts 1 connector XP1-HR3 fed to the tube cathodes.
System burst chroma block BC-10 is built on a chip D1. Tuned amplifier 5 of the chip selects identification signals "blue" lines, as in the load circuit has L4 C19, tuned to a frequency of 3.9 MHz. The pulses from the output of the amplifier 5 compares the amplifier 6 with pulses from the output of the flip-flop 4, which serves as a generator of switching pulses for the electronic switch 2 in the chip D4. By comparing the signals at the amplifier 6 to the capacitors C15, C18, connected to its outlet via terminals 9, 10 chip D1, the voltage will be different. With the correct phase of the trigger voltage at terminal 4 9 is more than the withdrawal of 10, 0.4 volts. This voltage is applied to the key 7 amplifier circuits D1 and its output voltage appears across the 4.5 V. This pin 8 chips D1 and D2 chip pin 6 opens amplifiers 2, 4 color difference signals.
If the input of the BC-10 (Contact1 sockets XS1) signal comes in black and white, the potentials at the terminals 9 and 10 are the same chips D1, the control voltage at terminal 8 becomes zero and amplifiers 2, 4 in the chip D2 closed. If the phase of the trigger 4 is incorrect, the potential difference across the terminals 9 and 10 of the chip D1 changes sign and the second input of the flip-flop 4 receives voltage that changes the phase of its work. Map mode DC circuits and transistors are shown in Table. 4.1. and Table. 4.2.
chip D1 D2 D3 D4
number of output voltage on the findings,
1 9.1 4.5 2.4 3.6
2 0 0.5 9.5 0
3 2.5 0.2 5 3.6
4 0 0 9.5 0.1
5 2.5 3,4-5,1 * 5 4.3
0-6,4 6 1.1 ** 9.5 -
7 0.3 6.6 5 -
8 6.7 1.6 1.1 4.3
9 6.4 1.6 11.9 6.6
10 6 6.5 7.4 8.4
11 0 4.3 5.5 7.6
12 2.9 7.9 7.4 9.8
13 - 12 5.5 10.4
December 14 5-5,8 *** 7.4 12
15 9.1 5.5 10.5 *** 4,3-5,2
16 0 0.65 0 0.2
* -zavisit Contrast of the slider;
** - Depends on the position of the regulator saturation;
*** - Depends on the position of the dimmer.
terminal voltage of the transistor
Collector Emitter Base
VT1 2 0 0.7
VT2 12 9.2 9.8
VT3 74 6.8 7.4
VT4 74 6.8 7.4
VT5 74 6.8 7.4
VT6 12 7.8 8.4
VT7 120 73.5 74
VT8 120 73.5 74
VT9 120 73.5 74
TV has a frameless design. Its basis is the front part of the body (frame) made of injection molded ABS plastic. On the rim mounted kinescope, loudspeaker, selekktory channels meter wave (MW) and UHF (UHF), the selector television programs (BVTP), block of four sliders operational settings derived on the front panel, the block of the high-voltage multiplier type VH 5.5 / 16-0,6 (a kinescope). Obverse rim closes the decorative panel, which is made of black plastic.
On the front panel (above BVTP) are four sliders saturation, contrast, brightness and volume. Under numerals channels are buttons switch with built-in LEDs. When extended BVTP have access to the tuning knob switches ranges on three points each and signs settings.
Switch locking device can be transferred in one of two positions. In the up position below the switch will be the designation "50Hz" and the power button on the battery can not be pressed (it Tighten the switch). When the switch of the locking device is in the lower position shows the symbol "12". In this case zakontrivaetsya button on the TV from the mains.
On the side of the rim attached two brackets, which are attached to the backplane. It is made of fiberglass foil printed on both sides and is used for mechanical attachment and electrical connection of the TV unit. It has eight modules. Moreover, they (except the antenna unit) can be rearranged on the reverse side of the board, which facilitates the maintenance and repair of the TV. With the same purpose backplane can be tilted and locked in the open position.
TV cabinet is made of the same plastic as the frame. In the rear part installed board mounted power supply, separated from the backplane special screen. After mounting, the housing is attached to the side bracket with two screws. Through the rectangular hole in the upper part of the body it is possible to connect the appropriate razemny connector mounted with a flexible holder on the backplane, the power supply. Then the hole is closed decorative cover with two screws. On top of the housing is hinged carrying handle.
TV assembled on the elements of domestic production.
SCM blocks or SKD (depending on the configuration of the TV) screened from the rest of the circuit.
To comply with thermal regimes elements TV cabinet top and bottom provided with holes for ventilation, besides the power supply transistors, frame and line scans are mounted on the radiator.
In general, TV, convenient repair, easy access to the elements of backplanes, chroma block, the block scans, except for the voltage multiplier and the power supply. TV quickly assembled and disassembled. Not high density mounting.
6.1.Raschet load factor and the failure rate of the circuit elements.
Ke = 10 service factor.
Cor 1 = coefficient of simultaneous operation.
K2 = 1-coefficient failure rate, depending on the mechanical loads.
K1- coefficient failure rate is determined by the schedules depending on the load factor.
6.1.1.Rasschityvaem coefficients loads for resistors
KnR = PR / Rdop, (6.1)
where KnR-resistor load factor;
PK-working power of the resistor, W;
Rdop allowable power resistor watts.
Power resistor is determined by the formula
PR = U2 / R, (6.2)
where U-resistor voltage, V;
R-resistor in ohms.
General Intensive failure for fixed resistors determined by the formula
lobsch = l0 * Ke * Cor * K1 * K2 * n, (6.3)
where lobsch-total failure rate for fixed resistors;
Cor-factor simultaneous operation;
K1-factor failure rate;
K2 is the coefficient of mechanical loads;
n-number of elements of this type.
Resistor MLT-0,125: l0 = 0,07; the number of 60 pieces.
PR39 = 7,92 / 4,700 = 0.0132 W
KnR39 = 0.0132 / 0.125 = 0.106.
The overall failure rate for the resistors MLT-0.125
lobschMLT-0,125 = 0,07 * 1 * 1 * 0.4 * 10 * 16.8 * 60 = 10-61 / hr.
Resistor MLT-0,25: l0 = 0,07; amount of 4 pcs.
KnR75 = 0,5, K1 = 0,5,
The overall failure rate for the resistors MLT-0.25
lobschMLT-0,25 = 0.07 * 1 * 1 * 0.5 * 10 * 4 = 4.35 * 10-61 / hr.
Resistor MLT-0,5: l0 = 0,07; 3 pieces.
PR67 = 682/30100 = 0.153 W
KnR67 = 0.153 / 0.306 = 0.5.
General Intensive failures for resistors MLT-0.5
lobsch = 0.07 * 1 * 1 * 0.7 * 10 3 * 10-61 * = 1.47 / h.
Resistor MLT-1: l0 = 0,07; 3 pieces.
PR71 = 462/12000 = 0.17 W,
KnR71 = 0.17 / 0.17 = 1.
General Intensive failures for resistors MLT-1
lobsch = 0.07 * 1 0.85 * 1 * 3 * 10 * = 1.785 * 10-61 / hr.
For trimming reistorov SP3-30i: l0 = 0,807; 9 pieces.
PR41 = 52/10000 = 0.0025 W
KnR41 = 0.0025 / 0.125 = 0.02.
The overall failure rate for intense trimmers
lobschSP3-30i = 0.807 * 1 * 1 * 0.2 * 10 * 9 = 14.526 * 10-61 / hr.
6.1.2.Rasschityvaem coefficients loads for capacitors
ANC = Vin / Udop.rab, (6.4)
where UC-capacitor voltage, V;
Udop.rab-permissible operating voltage of the capacitor, V;
KnS- load factor of the capacitor.
The overall failure rate of the capacitor is calculated as 6.3.
For capacitors K50-6-150V; l0 = 0,513; the number of 12 pieces.
KnS49 = 120/150 = 0.8
lobschK50-6-150 = 0.2 * 10 * 0.513 * 1 * 1 * 12 = 12,312 * 10-61 / h
For capacitors K73-9-200 B; l0 = 0,29; the number of 21 pieces.
KnS46 = 120/200 = 0.6
lobschK73-9-200 = 0.29 * 0.2 * 10 * 1 21 * 1 * 1 = 12.18 / hr.
Capacitor CT-1; l0 = 1,64; the number of 23 pieces.
KnS50 = 66.6 / 80 = 0.83,
lobschKT-1 = 1.64 * 1.1 * 1 * 1 * 10 * 23 = 414 * 10-61 / hr.,
For capacitors K73-16; l0 = 0,29; number 1 pc.
KnS23 = 0.6 / 10 = 0.06
lobschK73-16 = 0.1 * 0.29 * 1 * 1 * 10 * 1 = 0.29 * 10-61 / hr.
6.1.3.Rasschityvaem coefficients loads KD522B diodes; l0 = 0,452; amount of 4 pcs.
KnVD = Urab. / Vaux. (6.5)
where KnVD-load factor of the diode;
Urab-diode voltage, V;
Vaux-allowable voltage across the diode, V.
KnVD2 = 0.5 / 1.1 = 0.45,
lobschDIODOV = 0.452 * 10 * 1 * 1 * 4 * 18.08 = 10-61 / hr.
6.1.4.Rasschityvaem coefficients loads Zener
Zener KS168A; l0 = 0,5; number 1 pc.
Kn = 0,5, K1 = 0,5,
lobschKS168A = 0.5 * 10 * 1 * 1 * 1 * 0.5 = 10-61 / hr.
6.1.5.Rasschityvaem coefficients loads for transistors
RC = URn2 / RH (6.6)
where RC-power on the collector, W;
Urn-load voltage, V;
RH-load resistance, Ohm.
KnVT = PK / PK ext., (6.7)
where KnVT-load factor of the transistor;
PK-collector capacity for W;
PK-ATT permissible power at the collector, Vt.
The overall failure rate is calculated as 6.3.
Transistors KT315A; l0 = 1,44; 3 pieces.
RC = 10.62 / 3600 = 0.031 W
KnVT1 = 0.031 / 0.150 = 0.25,
lobschKT315A = 1.44 * 10 * 0.35 * 1 * 1 * 3 = 15.12 * 10-61 / hr.
Transistors KT969A; l0 = 0,84; number 6 pcs.
Kn = 0,5, K1 = 0,5,
lobschKT969A = 0.5 * 10 * 1 * 1 * 6 * 3 = 10-61 / hr.
6.1.6.Rasschityvaem coefficients for loads of winding elements
For delay line LZYA-0.33; l0 = 0,84; number 1 pc.
Kn = 0,5, K1 = 0,5,
lobschLZYa-0.33 = 0.5 * 10 * 1 * 1 * 1 * 0.5 = 10-61 / hr.
For delay line UDL-64-5; l0 = 0,84; number 1 pc.
Kn = 0,5, K1 = 0,5,
lobschULZ-64-5 = 0.5 * 10 * 1 * 1 * 1 = 0.5 * 10-61 / hr.
For inductors; l0 = 1,018; the number of 10 pieces.
Kn = 0,5, K1 = 0,5,
lobschL = 0.5 * 10 * 1 * 1 * 10 = 5 * 10-61 / hr.
6.1.7.Rasschitvaem load factors chips
IC l0 = 0,01; amount of 4 pcs.
Kn = 0,5, K1 = 0,5,
lobschMIKROSKHEM = 0.5 * 10 * 1 * 1 * 2 * 4 = 10-61 / hr.
The calculated coefficients are entered in the summary table of the failure rate of the unit. (Table 6.1.)
T0 = ??1 / lSKHEMY, (6.33)
where T0 MTBF.
T0 = ??1 / 519.413 * 10-6 = 1925 hours.
6.3.Raschet probability of failure-free operation time depends on the operating unit.
The calculation is performed for selected time intervals, up to the limit t = 1,2-1,3T0
P (t) = e-lskhemy * t, (6.34)
P (500) = e- (519,413 * 0,000001 * 500) = 0.77,
P (1000) = e- (519,413 * 0,000001 * 1000) = 0.59
P (1500) = e- (519,413 * 0,000001 * 1500) = 0.45,
P (2000) = e- (519,413 * 0,000001 * 2000) = 0.35,
P (2500) = e- (519,413 * 0,000001 * 2500) = 0.27,
P (3000) = e- (519,413 * 0,000001 * 3000) = 0.21,
P (3500) = e- (519,413 * 0,000001 * 3500) = 0.16.
The data obtained are summarized in Table 6.2
Dependence of the probability of failure-free operation of the operating time
t, h. 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500
P (t) 0,77 0,59 0,45 0,35 0,27 0,21 0,16
The data obtained are building a graph of the probability of failure-free operation of the unit from the time of operation.
P (t), h.
6.4.Raschet probability of failure-free operation after replacing the
Maintenance unit provodilost after operating for 500 hours, with service replaced the transistor KT315A.
lSKHEMY = lSKHEMY1 + lVT11 / h. (6.35)
where lSKHEMY1-failure rate without lVT1
lSKHEMY = 519.413 + 1 15.12 / hr.
Produce probability calculation unit uptime for the previously defined time intervals, the results are recorded in Table 6.3.
P (500) = e- (519,413 * 0,000001 + 15,12 * 0,000001) = 0,99,
P (1000) = e- (519,413 * 0,000001 + 15,12 * 0,000001 * 500) = 0.85,
P (1500) = e- (519,413 * 0,000001 + 15,12 * 0,000001 * 1000) = 0.72,
P (2000) = e- (519,413 * 0,000001 + 15,12 * 0,000001 * 1500) = 0.61,
P (2500) = e- (519,413 * 0,000001 + 15,12 * 0,000001 * 2000) = 0.52,
P (3000) = e- (519,413 * 0,000001 + 15,12 * 0,000001 * 2500) = 0.44,
P (3500) = e- (519,413 * 0,000001 + 15,12 * 0,000001 * 3000) = 0.38.
t, h. 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500
P (t) 0,99 0,76 0,58 0,44 0,34 0,26 0,20
Average absorption time work increased by 525 hours.
6.5.Raschet maintainability indicators
6.5.1.Srednee recovery time TV
TV = (t1 + t2 + t3 + t4 + t5) / 5 hours. (6.36)
where t-real time spent on repairing units,
TB = (1 + 2.5 + 3.5 + 3 + 4) / 3 = 5 hours.
6.5.2.Veroyatnost recovery at a predetermined time P (TV)
P (ti) = 1-e- (TV / Tw), (6.37)
where TV-normative repair time
P (ti) = 1-e- (3,5 / 3) = 0.69.
6.5.3.Koeffitsient readiness KG
KG = T0 / (T0 + TV) (6.38)
CG = 1925 / (1925 + 3) = 0.998.
6.5.4.Koeffitsient maintenance LPS
CB = tIR / (TP + + tIR tTO), (6.39)
where tIR-time correct operation during the year;
TP-time to repair;
tTO-time for maintenance.
CB = 2000 / (2000 + 3.5 + 4) = 0.996.
6.5.5.Raschet number of spare elements.
Calculations are made on a one-year period of operation and 1,000 blocks.
tP * Ne * n
mE = --------------- = tP * Ne * n * lE (6.40)
mVT1 = 2000 * 3 * 5.04 * 6.10 * 1000 = 30 pcs.
mVD3 = 2000 * 4 * 0.452 * 6.10 * 1000 = 3 pcs.
mVT3 = 2000 * 6 * 0.84 * 6.10 * 1000 == 10 pcs.,
mMS = 2000 * 4 * 0.01 * 6.10 * 1000 == 1 pc.
7.TEHNOLOGIYA Repairs and Adjustments
7.1.Analiz possible faults
List of faults occurring in the common color block BC-10, are shown in Table. 7.1.
List of faults
Symptom Possible Cause
The screen lights up in any one color, visible line reverse sweeps transistors VT3-VT5, VT7-VT9; chip D3.
There is no color on the color image is faulty chip D1 or D4
No black-and-white image is defective C1, C5, R17, chip D2, R33, DT1
Not adjustable contrast faulty divider R20, R24, R25, faulty chip D2
Not adjustable brightness faulty elements C20, R31, C23, R10, D2
No green faulty chip D2, elements C26, VT5, R77
7.2.Standartnye repair operation
When checking the individual elements of the scheme should make sure that the fixed and variable resistors as the external examination and test ohmmeter. With proper resistor meter should show a nominal resistance value. In variable resistors further check smoothness of the moving part, no play, the quality of contact with the moving part fixed, the value of the initial shock resistance and other indicators.
Capacitors (non-electrolytic) can be checked on the sample with an ohmmeter. In case of breakdown of the ohmmeter shows a short circuit. Modifier ohmmeter when checking capacitors need to put in the "´100" or "´1000." Capacitors of a few hundredths, tenths, units or tens of microfarads at such checks give deflection unit to the right and a quick return to its initial position to the mark "Ghe with upturn." Before checking its output capacitor one must vypayat.
Electrolytic capacitors are also checked with an ohmmeter. For this purpose it is necessary to switch an ohmmeter set to "´100" or "´1000." If the capacitor is OK, then when you connect an ohmmeter to the terminals of the capacitor, first hand, deviate considerably, and then slowly return to the starting position of the mark "Ghe with upturn." If the lost capacity electrolytic capacitor, the arrow will not deviate much. In the case of a large leakage arrow deflected, and then slowly return to the left and stop at a considerable distance from the initial position, ie, values ??"Ghe with upturn."
And inductors, as well as the transformers also checked with an ohmmeter. In case of breakage of the winding ohmmeter shows infinite resistance. Often encountered such a failure as shorted turns when several turns due to violation of the wire insulation are closed to each other. There are cases of circuit winding on a metal screen, which also show an ohmmeter. When testing transformers must make sure that the insulation between the windings.
Serviceability of semiconductor devices is checked with an ohmmeter. To test the diodes must unsolder one of the conclusions in order to avoid the influence of the other elements of the circuit and measure the forward and reverse resistance of the junction. Resistance of the diode in the reverse direction will be much greater than in direct. This diode is good. Otherwise, the need to replace the diode.
Transistors can also be confirmed by measuring the forward and reverse resistance transitions. In low-power transistors reverse resistance in hundreds and thousands of times more direct. We transistors medium and high capacity reverse resistance in hundreds and thousands of times greater than the direct. Make sure that the transistor can also measure the resistance of the transistor is turned off when the collector output. For this purpose, the ohmmeter connected between the base and the collector, and then - between the base and emitter. In the first case, the device shows a low resistance, in the second - a relatively large number (hundreds of ohms or tens of ohms unit composition depending on the type of transistor). More transistors carefully checked by special devices to measure parameters of transistors or tester (eg C-4341), which measures the value of static gain and reverse current collector.
Galvanic cells, batteries checked by measuring the voltage on them during the discharge on the workload (with the unit). Ammeter thus should show the rated current, and the voltmeter - rated for a given element (battery) voltage. If the voltage will be much less than the rated current at maximum, the element (battery) is not suitable.
7.3.Vybor control instrumentation
When repairing and adjusting the TV uses a series of test equipment (GSE), its parameters are shown in Table. 7.2.
Type of measurement
The main technical
frequency band of 5-10,000 Hz
measurement of the amplitudes in 0,04-60
measuring time intervals ms 0,0002-500
The device meter
frequency range 0,4-1000 MHz
input resistance, Ohm 75
the sensitivity of the vertical channel
deviation of 1 mV, 10 mm
input capacitance, pF 150
output voltage at the output load
"Video", however, in one
the ratio of signal to the sync signal 3/7
output impedance, Ohm 75
frequency range 45-20000 Hz
DC voltage measurement, in 0,3-900
AC voltage measurement, in 1,5-750
measure DC currents mA 0,06-600
measurement of alternating currents mA 0.3-300
Resistance and Ohm 0,5-5000000
measurement gain 75-350
7.4.Perechen repair operations and adjustments
7.4.1.Podgotovka TV repair
1) disconnect the TV from the power supply;
2) remove the back wall;
3) remove the block BC-10 from the TV;
4) make a careful external examination, paying attention to the differences with the drawings boards block BC-10, on the defects of assembly and parts.
7.4.2.Proverit serviceability of the power system.
7.4.3.Proverit operation block BC-10.
7.4.4.Proverit and replace the doubt radioelements.
7.4.5.Provesti pokaskadnuyu check on the signal flow.
7.4.6.Zamerit modes DC on active circuit elements and compare them with those shown in the circuit diagram.
7.4.7.Ustranit found fault.
7.4.8.Provesti adjustment and tuning: the amplitude-frequency characteristic (AFC) of the luminance channel, high predistortion correction filters, signal extraction circuit identification, static balance, dynamic balance, matrixing chrominance signals, zero frequency detectors.
7.4.9.Kontrol parameters after repair OST to 205.031-85.
7.5.1.Nastroyka amplitude-frequency characteristic of the luminance channel
Before this operation to exclude the influence of pulses binding and Blanking by disconnecting contacts 6 and 8 in the connector XS1.
When doing this, the RF output Meter amplitude-frequency characteristics (IACHH) connected to pin 1 of connector XS1, and low-frequency input via a cable to the detector head is connected to the control point XN4. After turning on the TV and IACHH and warm on the screen of the device image should appear amplitude-frequency characteristic (AFC) of the luminance channel, which should correspond to that shown in Fig. 7.3. If the characteristic is not correct, ie, does not fit into the tolerance, you must use the core coil L1 to set a notch on the frequency of 4.0 MHz.
AFC luminance channel.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
7.5.2.Nastroyka correction filter high-frequency preemphasis
When you configure a filter correction radio frequency (RF) predistortion be fed to the input of BC-10 pin 1 of the connector XS1, composite video scale of 1 volt sync with negative polarity corresponding to the image of colored stripes. Connect the input of the oscilloscope through the dividing head 1:10 the next checkpoint XN1. Observing the waveform color, core coil L3 to achieve the lowest possible level of amplitude modulation, in which the difference between the maximum and minimum span does not exceed 20%.
Oscillogram RF predistortion correction filter is shown in Figure 7.4.
7.5.3.Nastroyka signal extraction circuit identification
At the entrance to the "video" to signal "color bars". An oscilloscope connected to the control point XN3 through dividing head 1:10 observed the waveform recognition (see. Fig. 7.5.). Core coil L4 need to set the maximum range of the signal (it should be at least 2 volts).
The waveform recognition
7.5.4.Regulirovka static white balance
Static balance control circuit is to obtain at the outlet of the BC-10 black level voltage at which the dispersion is compensated modulation characteristics of the kinescope and luminescence gray screen is provided without any shade. When applied to the input of the TV signal of any regulator, turn off the color saturation. Regulator "Contrast" should be set to a minimum, and "Brightness" -on maximum regulators hue disable disconnecting connector HR4. Then set the potentiometer R47, R55, R51 to the middle position. Potentiometer R13 (A1) on the backplane to install the faint glow of the screen. If it is different from the color gray, with the help of potentiometers R47, R51, R55 eliminate stray color.
7.5.5.Regulirovka dynamic balance
The dynamic balance required to obtain on the screen of a white field with a maximum contrast. Watching the screen image strips to turn off the color knob "Contrast" to put to maximum and control "Brightness" in the middle position. Potentiometer R41, R42, R44 eliminate any colorless color image stripes. Then, Set the "Contrast" at a minimum, and the regulator "Brightness" - the maximum, you must control mode corresponding channel R47, R55, R51 restore static balance. Adjustments should be made as long as at any position controllers "Contrast" and "Brightness" is not painting a colorless picture.
7.5.6.Ustanovka zero frequency discriminators.
The input to the BC-10 need to submit a complete image signal color bars or gray field. When off color at XN7 with a voltmeter to measure the voltage. When you turn off the colors and setting the maximum saturation voltage it should not be changed. In case prtivnom core coil L9 need to install the same voltage. Repeat the same operation for "blue" channel (at XN8 using the coil core L10).
7.5.7.Regulirovka matrixing signals.
When adjusting the control signal matrixing saturation should be set to maximum, and controls the brightness and contrast - in the best position to observe the image of colored stripes. Correct color reproduction to achieve them with the help of potentiometers R70, R74, swings changing color difference signals. After adjustment should validate the configuration of zeros discriminators.
7.6.Kontrol parameters after repair
Color TVs renovated checked under normal climatic conditions and the supply voltage to the deviation from the nominal value of not more than ± 2%. TV before checking should always be switched on for at least 30 minutes.
When checking the settings after the repair, use only external controls. Check the parameters that may change in the course of repair. These include: sensitivity tract images, nonlinear distortion of the raster, convergence, stability and synchronization of the HR lines, color burst performance automatic frequency oscillator (APCHG), white balance, zero frequency detectors of the color, quality sound.
The sensitivity of the image channel check tranzitestom TR-0836. On the TV antenna input signal is fed from tranzitesta overlapping bands ("net field") with a filling rate of 4 MHz and a modulation depth of 85% to the channel. TV tuned oscillator tuning knob "manual" to obtain the best image sharpness. After this signal is input "color bars" and regulators chrkosti and contrast achieve correct reproduction of halftones. Then smooth knob tranzitesta attenuator reduces the input level to the point where at the appropriate frequency tuning knobs lines and personnel is still possible to achieve a stable picture on the screen. Tranzitesta output value will be equal to the sensitivity of the image path.
Harmonic distortion of the raster check observation signal "net field" applied to the antenna input on the TV tranzitesta. Next, measure the graph paper or flexible transparent ruler size of most of the stretched cells Amax most compressed cells Amin lying in a row near the center of the screen. Then calculate the nonlinearity coefficient,%
CN = 2 * [(AMAX- Amin) / (Amax + Amin)] * 100
Convergence error check when applying for antenna input signal "net field." Shall have been previously exposed to the permissible harmonic distortion rastra.Yarkost image set lower than the average in order to avoid defocusing field lines of the mesh. Deviation values ??measured rays graph paper or flexible transparent line at a distance of 25 mm from the edges of the screen.
Stability sync checked visually in TV test signal and "net field" from tranzitesta.
Stability of the color burst is checked when applying to tranzitesta signal "color bars" on the antenna input of the TV. If you turn off on tranziteste burst signal (identification signal), and the replacement of the color bar signal on a black and white signal color channel should automatically turn off and the screen should become black and white. Rotate the handle "frame rate" to make sure that the image is colored to some extent of the axis of the regulator.
White balance is checked visually by submitting to the antenna input of the TV signal from tranzitesta "gray scale", the corresponding ten vertical stripes of varying brightness from white to black. Before starting the test pen color tone set in the position corresponding to the white balance on the white stripe. Contrast knob is set to minimum contrast knob yarkosti- in a position where no light only black stripes. Then, the contrast is increased as long as the legibility of all the vertical strips. Light color and brightness of the most bright band must conform to white, and all the other bands should not have color painting. Turning the knob contrast should not be accompanied by a change in color of light and dark bands of the main or secondary colors.
The accuracy of adjustment of the frequency detector of the color flow tests on the antenna input of the TV signal "white box" after checking the white balance. Several times turn on and off on the identification signal tranziteste.
At the same time there should be no noticeable change in the emission color of the screen.
Sound check at the hearing. All other test related to the quality of fastening knobs, buttons, connectors, individual parts and assemblies by inspection.
In this thesis project examined the organization of an enterprise on repair of household electronic equipment in a limited liability company. Considered overall economic efficiency calculation of an undertaking, goals and objectives of the enterprise, security in the workplace. Economic calculation showed that the company produced cost-effectively. Also consider the location of the enterprise working conditions, health and safety, safety, calculation of logistics, the cost of fuel and energy costs guild. Calculation of wages Radiomechanic showed that for the region where the company will be located wages will be high.
Fully planned, the company based on the standards in the working area, equipped with the necessary equipment jobs and control izieritelnoy equipment.
In the process of the considered analysis of concept, the design of the TV, calculated the reliability, the technology of repair and adjustment unit for color TV.
1. Diamond DP, Kulikov, BN, MA Roksman Directory. Portable color televizory. M .: Cup-a, 1996
2.Kuzinets LM, Metuzalem EV Rymanov, EA Maintenance of television receivers and antenn.-M.: Communication 1973
3.Gedzberg YM Repair color portable televizorov.-M.: Radio and Communications, 1991
4.Brodsky MA Portable televizory.-Minsk Vysheyshaya School, 1993
5.Goncharuk BD, the channel NA Economics, organization and planning of enterprises for repair of household electronic apparatury.-M.: Light and Food Industry, 1983
6.Kirillo LR, Brodsky MA Televidenie.-Minsk Vysheyshaya school, IM 1983
7.Polibin VV Repair and adjustment of household electronic apparatury.- M.: Light industry and consumer services, 1987
8.Pavlov SP Safety in radio and electronic promyshlennosti. M .: Radio and Communications, 1