Architecture of the Moscow metro
For more than half a century of the existence of the underground we are used to it, but has already become an everyday transport, but it loses its former reputation as a "miracle" - miracle of technology and the miracle of art.
Artistic authority metrostroeniya conquered in the 30s, at the time of construction of lines and stations first. Impression made on the people "underground palace" was so overwhelming that the launch of the first stage was associated with the onset of a new "era metropolitenovoy" when together "with the city improved and people who live in it." For residents of Moscow - from small to large - Metro was the criterion and aesthetic judgments, and a sense of patriotism. "Maybe you still do not like the subway?" - Then sharply raised the question of taste. Prestige underground reinforced widely published in the press responses famous scientists, masters of art, politicians, high foreign guests. / That's how the subway writes about, among other impressions of Moscow Lion Feuchtwanger: "... means of communication work well, and the naive pride of local patriots to their subway are justified, it really is the most beautiful and comfortable in the world. " Julius Fucik places in the Czechoslovak newspaper "Rude Pravo" in 1935 essay "A Brief History of the Moscow metro", and an American engineer and consultant John Morgan at the same time in the Soviet Union publishes a brochure entitled "Moscow Metro the best in the world."
Under the influence of magic conquered in the 30s authority all subsequent stages of construction and decoration of the metro perceived as an absolute fact. For example, the Circle Line, the last portion of which was commissioned in 1954. We can not say that all stations consistently awarded praise. Some and condemn in the press for some shortcomings. But, if in any doubt about the general direction of artistic development of subway construction, its concept has not been reviewed. Moreover, among other architectural objects precisely subway stations traditionally enjoined the most representative role. The uniqueness of the social and social and aesthetic significance of images of the underground was not challenged by any official criticism or everyday consciousness. Attitude to architecture subway Muscovites "not subject to change about the same as, say, your favorite things, which had once been wound up as festive and for many years it continues to be."
Even when at the end of the 50s was strongly condemned "luxury" of post-war construction and metro station became referred to in art-critical periodicals as examples of decorative frills, overall architecture of underground remains, as it is scientific and theoretical revision. The answer architects practicing the lessons of criticism was immediate and complete rejection of any artistry in the subway - the new station was a clear embodiment of aesthetics and functionalism "right angle". Just four years after the construction of the last section of "lush" ring line and just one year after the date quite generously decorated halls station "Frunze" and "Sport", that is, in 1958, commissioned the first station of the most austere, if not sharper - poor Filevskaya line. But as for the theoretical basis of rotation in the subway construction, as well as review the results of a long period of monumental and representative design, it does not become the subject of special consideration. It would seem that now, at the time of the declaration of priority function in the architecture - it was time to be thinking of the "functional" branch of architectural construction. It would seem that at last ripe time to ponder deeply the very nature and specifics of the vehicle architecture and rethinking the entire previous experience, try to form his concept ...
But this did not happen. And later, during the '60s and' 70s, when one after the other sections are put into operation new metrodorog when to mid-70s are scheduled noticeable changes in the design of the stations, the interest in the artistic look of the metro as it dries completely. Rather, it is still the pride of Muscovites and tourist sights, reproduced in postcards and promotional guides, but not investigated either in terms of its particular specificity, either in terms of its place in the history of Soviet art.
It was only in the 80s, the 50-year-old anniversary of the Moscow subway and subway construction, flashing research interest in the underground as a special architectural and discussion - an art object. There is a number of interesting works, far from traditional conservatism in understanding the role of social and artistic life of Moscow subway in the whole country, considering its aesthetics in close connection with its transport function of studying the "world underground" as a complex historical and cultural complex. This publication is in line with these works, but the test material is more widespread and versatile. The album also contains introductory articles and illustrations, recreating a modern look stations, two of publication section - documentary and memoir, which are accompanied by historical photo chronicle, as well as playback of preparatory drawings, sketches and projects. The author is grateful to all who have provided unique materials from their archives and participated in the creation of the book, share their memories and reflections. The author also brings gratitude to the staff of the Museum of Architecture. Shchusev and the Museum of the Moscow metro for their assistance in the preparation of a number of illustrative album.
The history of the Moscow metro began long before its opening. One of the most populated cities in Europe, Moscow at the dawn of the century felt the need to develop so-called "off-street railways." The answer to this problem posed by life itself were a number of interesting projects. They appeared one after the other, offering a trestle construction lines or tunnels.
The first of these projects, designed Antonovich, Golonevichem and Dmitriev in 1901, involved the construction of a circular rack on Collegiate Chamber of the shaft with two diameters connecting Transfiguration outpost and Novodevichy Convent and Serpuchovskay outpost and Petrovsky Park. The second project, submitted a year Balinskii engineer, suggested to associate with the Tverskaya Zastava Zamoskvoreche tunnel and overpass line passing through the center of the city. This project was discussed at a meeting of the Moscow City Duma, where it was decided that due to the fact that the device in Moscow "off-street road is premature if not caused by the pressing needs of the population", "Mr. Balinskii his harassment refuse." Resolution of the City Council was to "warm up" the fear of the Moscow clergy: "Is it possible to prevent this sinful dream? Do not humiliate yourself ... people descended into hell? And what there is, knows only God and sinful man should not be in charge. "
Projects next stage of development of engineering in the field of subway construction appeared to be closer to the practical implementation. In 1911, the city government, and then the city council was seen as quite realistic, the proposal to build a tram tunnel under the Lubyanka travel, Ilinka and the Red Square, which later was to become part of the network of the future subway. This network included three diameters: Kalanchevskaia Smolensk Square to the market; Intercession of the gates to the Tverskaya Zastava; from Vindavsky (now Riga) station to the Serpukhov area. Project Engineer Knorre nominated in 1912, involves the construction of two phases: first, the radial (from the center to the connecting branch between October and Kursk railway) and then the ring - the Garden Ring.
Due to economic insolvency of the city, as well as in connection with the outbreak of the First World War, none of the projects has not been adopted for implementation. But the experience was not in vain, and in the development of these types of engineering proposals conceptualized metrodorog, as well as methods of production work. At the initial stage of the construction of the metro project materials have proved a valuable tool for Metrostroi.
The decision to underground facilities matured in the early 20s. By that time, Moscow has poor transport connection, the mobility of the population ahead of all cities in the world. Here's how to portray the life of Moscow street Ilya Ilf and Evgeny Petrov: "According to the sidewalks and streets, in different directions, left, right, forward, backward, at random, bumping against each other, people are fleeing. Impression is that constantly catch the thief. And only after looking notice that no one is caught, and all are busy with their chores. ... In general the street what happens is officially called the "rush hour". A great many people and everyone should immediately go somewhere. "
This appeared as Moscow in their everyday existence in the cartoons, in the newsreels, in a satirical literature. Was at the same time a different kind of literature, opisyvavschaya romantic image of the city of the future. In urban ideas of the 20s one of the most important are transport. Among his upcoming species called cars, train, tram screw, moving sidewalks, airships and, of course, underground. "In almost fantastic transport force believed in all that time ... hoping that in the education of a new citizen crucial role played by radio, television, and most of all racing over paths on concrete pillars electric" nazemki "speed" underground "managed balloons with "columns, piers," "self-propelled sidewalk", "taxis" and even "rotating boathouses."
Originating as an engineering problem, the idea of ??building underground in a romantic post-revolutionary period evolved: a high-speed and convenient transportation conceived now as one of the most active means of building a new beautiful life. Start of the practical implementation of this social utopia was laid in 1923, when the Office of the Moscow city railways was established offices in designing underground.
However, it would take about ten years before the beginning of the construction of Moscow subway. Only in June 1931 Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) adopted a resolution: "... to commence preparatory work on the construction of the subway in Moscow as the main means of resolving the problem of fast and cheap human traffic ...". In the same year, was established a special organization - Management Metrostroi, immediately begin exploration. They were before - in May 1924, Moscow utilities to perform a first exploratory drilling soil on the highway, which is expected to lead to Kalanchevskaia Square to Sverdlov Square. But Metrostroy gave detailed analysis of the nature of hydro-geological and archaeological conditions and presented the preliminary design of subway lines, drawn in variants of small and deep foundations.
In 1932, for consideration of the project were involved in four expert committees: the Soviet, German, French and English. Recommendations of foreign experts, relied on his experience metrostroeniya were contradictory, since it does not take into account local conditions in full, but, of course, provided invaluable assistance in making the final design and technical solutions. March 21, 1933 Resolution of the People's Commissars of the USSR was approved scheme of the Moscow subway lines length of 80.3 km, has 10 radii.
A year before this began to lay the first mine-Kirovsko Frunze diameter, runs from Sokolniki to the Crimean area through Sverdlov Square, and then, with some delay - mine Arbat radius connecting the center and the Smolensk area. They were built before the final draft of the priority lines to ascertain the full picture of the hydrogeological and therefore work on the construction of tunnels were initially slow. Only in the spring of 1934 in connection with the development of construction methods and the introduction of new technology and building a turning point began rapidly gaining momentum in November of the same year the first metro line tunnel length of 11.2 km was ready. Decisive stage construction of the first stage began four months - from January to April 1935, when there was mounting and finishing works, as well as work on decorating stations and lobbies. But even before the deadline for submission of the line, February 6, the delegates of the VII Congress of Soviets became the first test flight passengers underground. April 26 Government Commission "recognized the Moscow Metro quite ready" and presented the act of its acceptance. A May 15, 1935, at 7 am, the Moscow Metro was opened for public use.
Birth of underground meant and birth of a new industry architecture. Started designing the underground, Soviet architects did not have almost anything that was a starting point in the formation of shaped concepts of new transport facilities. Foreign metrovokzaly, stressed functional and everyday, could not be fully emulated, but architects and knew something about them, mostly hearsay. In the 20s it was the face of the Paris subway, with its dim lights and dusty walls is an argument in the dispute - to be or not to be in the Moscow subway, subway is skilled opponents as alleged non-socialist mode of transport.
The image of socialism (and from the outset it was clear that the subway along with the largest constructions of the age - the Palace of the Soviets, the channel Moscow - Volga - will predstavitelstvovat for socialism) as a way of showing off the holiday, prosperity, progress and upward. Human exploration of near-Earth space has become a symbol of life, a manifestation of its energy capacity. Images of unshakable confidence in the right to transformative activity encouraged political censorship, and specific examples of stations we see as "biased" era vision manifested in pictorial fabric architecture subway.
Attitude to the metro from the very beginning, it was much more prosaic and mundane. And the contours of the stations were born almost imperceptibly - to close within a single room architectural bureau Metrostroi technical department. It started its activities since the end of 1931, and in 1933 was transformed into an independent institution - the central project office "Metroproekt."
State Bureau consisted of very young architects who came to Metrostroy immediately or almost immediately after the institute's Bench. Headed the Bureau S.Kravets, proven practices, who arrived from Kharkov, where he was engaged in the construction of one of the largest facilities of late constructivism - Houses Gosprom. Getting to the leadership team, S.Kravets - the only one of the architects! - Read the subways Germany, France, England and America. Experience gained there he shared with his colleagues. First of all, this small group of "pioneers" Moscow owes the advent of the metro. She has done all the hard, innovative, which had no parallel in the terrestrial architecture, but rough and because now almost invisible work. Employees Bureau, and then - "Metroproekta" identify the location of the stations primarily determined for each depth of the type three-dimensional solution, column spacing, the optimum size of the pylons, accommodation ladders. They studied the facing materials, produce Recommendations on lighting. All this became the basis for the development of unusual shaped architectural objects.
These objects represent a whole range of facilities, including surface and underground lobbies and halls platform stations. At the beginning of March 1934 a competition was announced for the architectural design of the underground. It was attended by almost all design studios in Moscow. From March 30 to April 9 at the White Hall of the Moscow City Council held an exhibition of projects underground halls, entrances and lobbies metro stations. Of the 33 proposals put up the first prize is not got none. The second section of "Red Gate" I.Fomina and "Kirov" N.Kolli taken for construction. Of the projects awarded 3 and 4 prizes were adopted to implement the "Ryad" Yu.Revkovskogo and "Sokolniki" I.Taranova and N.Bykovoy.
All of these events, dates and times of the first phase of the work of architects - historical landmarks subway construction. Confronted the architects of structural and artistic tasks were new and extremely difficult - and because of the technical features, and because of the need to address them in close cooperation with the overall planning concept of the development of Moscow. In the early 30s, a draft of the new General Plan of the capital, and even before its approval metrostroevtsy had to link the location of stations and lobbies with existing and planned buildings, with red lines to develop plans. The new General Plan pays great attention to semantic and compositional center - the Palace of Soviets. "Couple" Master Plan - Palace of the Soviets "was important ... as a model working out solutions for any serious urban site ... To clarify the individual, the most complex in the town-planning, and in the three-dimensional sense of the hubs of the city had been a number of competitions: House on the Radio (1933), the Palace of Labor DEFRA (1933), the House of People's Commissariat (1934), the Palace of Engineering (1934) and so on. "
The appearance of the first subway lines (and from mid-1934 "Metroproekt" already started to develop conceptual solutions of the second stage) is determined by these major city-forming units. Therefore, for example, under the impact attention and designers, and regulatory bodies was station "Palace of the Soviets" (now "Kropotkin"), which is supposed to be connected to the lobby of the Palace and become a kind of introduction to the image of the future of the majestic buildings. That is why, by the way, and dragged underground hall design - planning scheme okolodvortsovogo space was not yet clear. Artistic design station "Ryad" is largely determined by its proximity to the House of the Council of Labor and Defense A.Langmana (1932-1934, now Gosplan) - a measure of representative, strict building which, in turn, was to be the beginning of a solemn line leading to the Palace of the Soviets. And so each station - its figurative substantial number depended on the functional connectivity with a specific composition and urban hub of the capital, and the way it has been designed.
Time Master Plan 1935 (and it came even before the plan was approved by the government and became law) - is the time when the old utopia and dreams give way to decisive action, the practical re-creation of the city, especially the center. In the name of "New Moscow" ruthlessly destroyed the old buildings - in December 1931 Cathedral of Christ the Savior was blown up in November 1934 - Sukharev Tower, the wall of China-town, Iberian Gate. Symbolically, the release of the space is at the same time and in parallel to the ground and under the ground. Ground "victims" are primarily places of worship;