Theories of motivation, their relationship and the practical application of the example of the store - Management Sciences

INTERNATIONAL

CENTER

DISTANCE

TRAINING

Management Training Programme for organizations

National Economy of the Russian Federation in the direction of "Management"

A consortium of educational institutions "Kuban-Link" THESIS

on "Theories of motivation, their relationship

and Application

for example, store Panasonic

Performed the listener:

Mamyshev Turkuby Y.

________________________

Supervisor:

Zangiev Taymuraz Taymurazovich

________________________

Krasnodar

1998

Introduction

Very often, you meet with people to popular belief that the study of management theory - a waste of time. Of course an experienced manager can easily find the right solutions and out of any situation. But at what price achieved such virtuosity? If a leader does not have the proper education in the field of management, it is basically a method of knowledge management activity was trial and error. Application of this method to work with people is unacceptable, since each individual - a person, with its principles, vision of the world, with its purely individual inner potential. One wrong decision of the head can cause irreparable emotional trauma. Theory is based on the experience and actually conducted the research and are objectively existing laws. If you have problems with the head of the meetings, decision making, motivation, people, the answers to your questions can be found in the theories.

In the research paper describes the store Panasonic, proved the relevance of the study of theories of motivation. In particular, consider the theory of Maslow's needs and Alderfera, rational-economic model of motivation, social model, the model of self-actualization, motivation Herzberg two-factor model and integrated model of motivation.

To assess their own strengths and weaknesses of the model used Fayol, as well as the principles of managing your time, delegation of authority and stress management.

The possibility of applying the theory of motivation and expectations theory in practice store Panasonic. To select the optimal management style provides the use of situational theory Tannenbaum and Schmidt. Evaluated the effectiveness of management functions J. Adera to develop an advertising campaign of the firm. The necessity of changes in the marketing policy of the company and provides specific proposals for change and management.

1. Characteristics of the research object

Shop Panasonic sells audio and video appliances. Customers are offered a wide range of services for the delivery, installation art, explaining the functionality and features, as well as warranty service. Shop Panasonic is a subdivision TSMPO MGTI engaged in commercial activities. Block diagram of TSMPO MGTI and store Panasonic represented respectively in Figures 1 and 2.

Fig. 1.

I am an administrator of the store. In my submission are:

The seller in the department of audio video equipment;

The seller in the department of home appliances;

Cashier, both service department;

Support staff (technicals).

In turn, for the work I have to report to the Director General of the store, the general director of CIE MGTI, deputy director and chief accountant. I give them a weekly report, which contains data on the volume of sales, information on store traffic, the demand for a particular product, the cost of renting the store, security, etc.

My responsibilities include:

Monitor the appearance of the store. It is necessary that consumers feel comfortable, at ease. Good aesthetic perception of the store promotes compassionate and trusting the client's location to the entire organization.

Advise on placement of goods and price tags. Grouped goods must be so that customers can easily find their products of interest and make the most of information from the price tag.

Provide information about the timing of delivery of the sellers of the goods, so that they, in turn, inform the customer if a product is not available currently.

Formation of a portfolio of orders in the course of working with clients.

Work with suppliers. Conclusion of contracts for the supply of products on the most favorable terms.

Control of sellers. Quantitative characteristics - the volume of sales. In terms of quality - the ability to interested buyers to answer all their questions and create a psychological comfort.

Interaction with senior management and clients, as well as the work that I am doing may be reflected scheme shown in Fig. 3.

SCHEME

Service customers

1 - receipt of the order;

2 - inquiry about the availability of goods;

3 - the transmission of information;

4 - coordination;

5 - The order for funds;

6 - obtaining authorization for the purchase of goods;

7 - Payments to suppliers;

8 - receipt of goods;

9 - holiday goods.

Fig. 3.

To effectively carry out its functions I have to have some knowledge in the field of psychology and be able to plan the structure of inventory so that customers can always be seen in the range of what they are interested in at the moment.

The working atmosphere in the store benevolent, between employees, regardless of position in the management hierarchy reigns mutual understanding and friendship. But at the same time every employee knows their rights and responsibilities, seeks to execute them in accordance with the requirements. If you have any questions, please contact to each other for help is not considered shameful, but on the contrary, such behavior is encouraged.

2. Relevance of research

An effective manager - is the one who is in charge of what he should do and bring this matter to an end. Management theory help it perform tasks that require me as a manager. Do not throw in the other tasks that do not conform to this post. Management theory allow to assess their effectiveness and efficiency, assess their strengths and weaknesses.

There are many authors who have written about the work of the manager. For the analysis of its effectiveness as a manager, I chose the model Fayol, as it helped me deeper and clearer to understand the essence of management, than I really have to deal with, identify their strengths and weaknesses in the management, control and planning. This Fayolle analysis is the best fit in my work. He helped me to clearly define their functions manager and expanded its activities "on the shelves."

Fayol model includes five elements:

1) to forecast and plan. Fayolle requires management skills to look ahead. In my work I constantly have to evaluate the future, based on the current situation. Need to plan for the purchase of goods to the Division's work had not been violated because of their lack. For this purpose, based on the analysis of demand for various products and their quantity in stock, I plan to at the end of each month that it is necessary to buy. Every day I plan how much time should be given to updating the data communication with subordinates. In planning a weakness is that usually do not have time to compile monthly reports and accounts significantly lengthen their working day.

2) to organize. The manager should be able to create a formal system of relationships. I defined the responsibilities of each employee and department structure built in such a way that they fit well in the organization. Clear structure provides insight into the responsibility of each employee for their work; makes it possible to ensure the unity of orders.

3) lead. Managers must set an example for their subordinates. Formally, I am the deputy director, but in some situations people do not feel in me leader. Since I am still a young officer, I had quite a long time to seek respect from subordinates. I had to show what I know and do your job well. Sometimes my orders sound like a request, but require immediate execution. At first I found it difficult to manage, as the staff was new and I did not know people, what they look like, what they are capable. But over time, this gap was liquidated by daily communication with subordinates.

4) coordinate. Fayolle believes that one of the duties of the manager to see to it that what makes his subordinates, consistent with the plan of the organization. I have to give the job subordinates so that they are aligned with my plan, as well as with the plans of other departments. Proper implementation of this function enables the work of subordinates in the same rhythm, without hectic activity and a simple pastime.

5) control. I constantly have to match the job done with what was planned. I oversee the activities of their subordinates through daily communication with them.

Three ideas improve efficiency as a manager

As I studied the course presents a variety of ideas that have helped to eliminate my weaknesses and improve efficiency as a manager.

Will focus on three of them:

The first idea - to manage your time. The manager must clearly understand that how to manage their time and to distribute the load to avoid "hectic activity" due to the fact that it is not time to do their job. It is necessary to highlight the following points:

- Leaving work. Sometimes you think that this work can be done later, but there are more and more missions and then did not have enough time to perform deferred work. Therefore, every day I set aside time for execution of works, which seem at first glance, can be postponed. Also in the plans of my subordinates allotted time to perform just such work.

- Ineffective delegation of authority. Sometimes there is a desire to do everything yourself, but due to lack of time, I entrust the work of his subordinates, with which they can cope.

- Inability to cope with the paperwork. To do this, I avert my end of the day half an hour to disassemble the documents that then I do not have to spend hours searching the item I need. And when the board order and know where you have that is simply a pleasure to work.

- Carrying out unnecessary meetings. I try to at the meetings has been clearly defined purpose of the meeting to subordinates know why I pulled them from work. So, before you assemble the meeting, I clearly define the purpose of the meeting, the order of the meeting to solve the current problems in the shortest period of time. I convene meetings as needed.

- The inability to prioritize. I need to constantly monitor the implementation of prioritized for more urgent and important tasks,

The second idea - the effectiveness of delegation of authority. Delegation of authority helps me release my time and thus pay him more than the implementation of other cases. Here are a few highlights:

- The quality of the results. I am clear about what should be the quality of the work and of his subordinates who I instruct her. I must be sure that the work will be done on time and without errors, which can lead to serious consequences.

- Individual characteristics of each employee. I was well aware of his subordinates and see which of them is better able to cope with the task. Of course, sometimes I have to suggest and explain something, but in general it takes me less time than if I was doing the job himself.

- Relationships with subordinates. As subordinates feel comfortable in my presence, see me competent specialists, they are willing to take up the work required of them. They also believe that if there were any difficulties, you can always appeal to me. I explained to them and help, not saying "out yourself!"

- Time. I also have to ensure that my staff to have had the time to do their job. Charged me to work did not cause them surge and postponing his work on "next". Despite the fact that I'm sure his subordinates, I have to control the execution of the work delegated to them, because responsibility for its implementation rests with me.

The third idea - stress. Due to a variety of troubles at work, constant voltage stress may be a situation where energy reserves are exhausted and, as a result, have difficulty with the performance of their duties, which could lead to the disruption of the work plan. Of course, sometimes there are situations in which it seems that you do not have time to work is not going well, there is a feeling of confusion and self-doubt. I try to avoid this situation by monitoring their condition and if I feel tired, I am seriously considering the possibility to refuse a particular job. It helps me relax, bring thoughts in order, quietly think. I also follow the status of their subordinates to help them not to fall into stress. I offer them to postpone for a while everything and just relax.

The role of a good manager - to choose the right combination of features and roles in each situation and to focus on those who are leading, with respect to this situation. The manager must also be able to objectively assess their personal qualities and continuously work towards self-improvement.

3. Theories of motivation work and their relationship

The theory of motivation is based on different assumptions about the factors that affect the people's efforts and works in the organization. E. Shane described four models of motivation in which it is assumed that people have different needs and goals, and hence the motivation to carry out their work will serve different kinds of rewards and incentives. Thus, the focus is individual and his needs.

3.1. Theory of Maslow's needs and Alderfera

as the basis of theories of motivation

Learning needs, their fundamental role in the behavior of people engaged many scientists, but the most widely used theory of Maslow and Alderfera.

According to the theory proposed by Maslow, there are five levels of needs that affect the behavior of people:

Physiological needs: food, water, shelter.

The need for security: protection from hazards, threats and deprivation.

Social needs: a sense of belonging to any group, friendship.

The need for respect and recognition: reputation, status, respect and recognition from others.

The need for self-actualization: the need for the implementation of their capacity for continuous improvement.

Needs, Maslow, form a hierarchy, as lower-level needs must be met first. Only after these needs are met, the person is committed to meeting the needs of a higher level.

Further development of this theory has been in the works Alderfera. He identified three levels of needs that essentially coincide with the five levels of Maslow's needs.

The theory of the hierarchy

needs (Maslow)

Theory ERG (Alderfer)

Self-actualization Growth

Respect, recognition

The involvement of social needs, belonging

The existence of security

Physiological needs

But there is one significant difference in these theories. According Alderferu needs of different levels can affect a person's behavior at a time.

Application of the theory needs is to ensure that remuneration in line with the pressing needs of the individual. Three theories E. Shane differ only in that of paramount importance different needs.

3.2. Rational-economic model

According to this model, the main motivator for people is a personal economic interest, that is, people are trying to do so, to get the maximum possible material and financial rewards. Consequently, the efforts of the people can be tightly controlled by granting or withholding of remuneration. The basis of rational-economic model are the following assumptions about the workers:

They are passive;

Try to make at work as little as possible effort;

Do not want to take responsibility;

Work they are interested in just because they can get money for it.

A similar point of view considered employees and McGregor in "Theory X".

3.3. Social model

The social model was the result of a series of studies in the industry. Had the greatest impact Hovtornskie studies conducted in the late 20s. The purpose of the experiments was to determine the effect of various factors (light level and duration of the work shift) on productivity. It was found that any change in working conditions, produced by researchers, including the restoration of the original working conditions leads to an increase in productivity. It was found that the observed increase in productivity, regardless of the physical working conditions due to the new character of social relations established between women workers, foremen and members of the research team. The study showed that people respond positively to show them the attention and recognition of the importance of their work.

These results have allowed E. Mayo formulate a new model of human behavior called social. It can be described briefly as follows:

At work people are motivated primarily by social needs;

People's behavior more strongly influenced by their fellow workers than managerial control and promotion;

People react to guide the extent to which management ensure that their needs are being involved in the recognition and self-esteem.

3.4. The model of self-actualization

According to this model, the task manager is to help employees feel the importance of their work and make full use of their abilities. They should explain the nature of the tasks to employees, to provide the necessary assistance and resources to provide appropriate training. According to the model of self-actualization, people want to participate in decisions that directly affect their work, but in this case it is possible to achieve commitment and dedication of employees in their organization. It is thus seen employee McGregor, describing

"Theory Y.

Convincing evidence of fair model of self-actualization gives study conducted by Herzberg.

3.5. Two-factor theory of motivation

and job satisfaction Herzberg

The basis of this model is that a sense of satisfaction or dissatisfaction is determined by two groups of factors: hygiene (reflect the degree of dissatisfaction) and motivational factors or satisfaction. Separation factors is not absolute. All the factors of satisfaction in the survey respondents were mentioned in connection with low job satisfaction and hygiene factors are also sometimes mentioned in connection with the increase in job satisfaction. Motivating factors related to the needs of people in self-actualization (Maslow) and can motivate people to improve performance indicators. Hygiene factors are related to the needs of the lower levels of Maslow's hierarchy and are able to enhance job dissatisfaction.

In accordance with the theory of Herzberg motivation of workers should be carried out as follows: ensuring that there is a significant work of a man for his hygiene factors, it is possible to reduce the level of dissatisfaction with people from work. This can be achieved if the conduct effective organizational policies, fair pay for work, create good working conditions. However, the weakening of job dissatisfaction does not lead to increased motivation. You can increase the motivation, if we strengthen the factors of satisfaction, which represents a meaningful precisely for this employee.

The disadvantages of each of the above models is the claim to universality. Each of the models is confirmed only under certain conditions, but not always.

3.6. Integrated model of motivation.

Psychological contract

Integrated model of motivation proposed by E. Shane tries to take into account the variability and diversity of motives of human behavior. In this model, human needs and motivational factors vary depending on the situation, in which people come and their life experience and expectations of age.

According to Shane, managers should be good diagnosticians, appreciate differences, to be able to take into account the diversity of situations and cultures. Shane put forward a concept, naming the psychological contract. It can help in the diagnosis manager motivation.

Psychological contract. This theory allows the use of elements of all three simple models of motivation: the rational-economic, social and samooaktualizatsii. Motivation is formed in the relationship of the employee and the employing organization. These relationships are governed by the psychological contract, tacitly concluded by both parties. Psychological contract - a set of expectations. Individual expects from the organization of certain fees for the work invested in the individual resources - energy, talent, ability and time. The organization also has certain expectations about the contribution of the individual to work and some representation on remuneration, which should, in response to the employee. Articles psychological contract is not formulated explicitly, and may not even realize parties.

4. The possibility of applying theories of motivation

Shop Panasonic

All theories of motivation have been developed based on the analysis of data obtained empirically. The researchers studied the motivation of workers of different professions and different content of labor. Thus, the rational-economic model is based on studies of Frederick Taylor. He proposed to divide the work into separate highly specialized tasks, and to establish a rigid connection between the amount of wages and quality of work. Narrow specialization determines the monotonous nature of the work, although it entails an increase in production, while piecework wage increases wages.

The social model was the result of Havtornskih research, one of the participants was that E. Mayo. Workers who collect telephone relay, perform routine work consisting of repetitive operations, hence the importance of social needs as a motivating factor for them was especially great.

Herzberg conducted research work of accountants and engineers, as this category of workers interested in the promotion and responsibility.

Each study will get different results and argue that, in practice, need to apply one or another model would be wrong.

From all this it can be an important goal for our research methodological conclusion: the nature of work, the missing elements in it for the harmonious development of personality and motivation are the determining factors.

To put into practice the store Panasonic theory of motivation is necessary to determine the nature of the work shop sellers and see how the desirability of establishing a system of remuneration.

The nature of work is such that involves constant interaction with colleagues, customers, finding individual approach to each individual, hence the need for social Seller can be fully satisfied. Installed wage system "percentage of sales" encourages sellers to increase sales volume, if for them is important in its cost. The increase in sales can only be a closer relation to the client, improving ways of interacting with them. That is due to the relationship with other people. There is a close relationship in meeting social and economic needs. Remains unsolved question whether there are real opportunities to meet the needs of growth?

The need for regular contacts sellers with customers leads to the fact that the seller receives a lot of experience in communication, a database for the analysis of near misses and successful moments, and on the basis of their observations can develop a strategy for communicating with customers. The consequence is ideally chosen strategy and tactical approaches may be gaining recognition and credibility. From the above it can be concluded: Seller work occurs in two fields: social and economic. Moreover, they are closely related, as the success of the first field is the determining factor for success in the second. But success can be achieved through professional development and communication skills of the employee.

Thus, the nature of the work makes it possible to meet the needs of all levels, which for a given individual are pressing at the moment.

It is important to note that the motivation - is not only a concern of the manager, the employee must analyze their own work, look for ways to meet it important for him needs. The manager should be aware of the needs of their employees, but to know them just can not because of their employment, large volume and diverse nature of the work performed. The study needs - work is fine and mostly psychological orientation, which requires an individual approach to each employee. Often it happens that the employee did not realize that it is now the most important. In this context, the manager's job should be to ensure that the necessary conditions for the development of the personality by choosing the optimal management style, an effective system of incentives or rewards. Only then can work as a good team coordinated team.

This conclusion is my own and does not pretend to be objective and comprehensive solution to all the problems associated with the motivation of employees. But it may act as hypotheses for further research and development of ways to improve my effectiveness as a manager.

5. The practical application of theories waiting

In all of these are still theories of motivation assumes that people are motivated by the desire to meet their needs. However, the manager's job is not limited to a choice of rewards and incentives; In addition, there is no guarantee that the reward will lead to an increase in the effort or that increased efforts will increase the productivity and quality of work of replenishment. Approach, which focuses on the relationship between efforts, the quality of performance and reward, called the theory of expectations.

Any theory is valuable only if it can be applied in practice. Therefore, we consider a specific example.

Suppose that I have instructed sellers departments to provide information to the end of the month on store traffic and demand for a particular commodity. The required data can be based on a purely visual, intuitive feeling sellers or be obtained empirically. In order for the data to be accurate and most fully reflect reality, required constant monitoring and precise fixing of the number of visitors and the goods sold by nomenclatures. Additional efforts will be made by sellers only if the sellers are confident that increased efforts may increase the likelihood of obtaining compensation.

Efforts should be rewarded only when lead to increased performance indicators. Should be encouraged not the effort invested in gathering information, and a job well done.

In this example, the provision of adequate good actually report. The link between effort and performance indicators is shown in Fig. 4.

Results only will significantly affect the behavior of the person, if he is committed to this outcome (reward) or trying to avoid it (punishment).

If communication is not specified Figure 3, clear and strong, the results will have a strong motivational impact. Motivation will be low if the weak link between the collection of information and the quality of the report. It is possible to identify the main factors affecting the strength of this connection:

1) ability. When given a task that requires much hard work, you need to be sure that the seller is disciplined and can cope with it.

2) a clear statement of purpose. It should be explained that the employee requires a detailed report and suggest methods for performing work.

3) assessment. Need to find a form of expression of high levels of recognition performance or condemnation low.

4) resources. It is necessary to ensure the availability of required resources. In this case, the resource is time. It is important that the job did not affect the quality of the basic work. Otherwise, it may be reduced wages, and the result (reward) would be useless.

It is equally important that the seller believed in the existence of links between high-quality reporting and remuneration. It is therefore necessary to determine in advance the form of remuneration for work performed. But it is impossible to know what the results are most valuable to artists, not having studied the performers and features of the situation. The results of the assignment in this example are:

Internal

External

Sense of achievement;

Feeling that made something of value;

Feeling that did something

required the company.

Additional payments;

Diversity;

Praise.

Now you need to explain why the results can be achieved, listed under "internal". Information on attendance will be the basis for making decisions about expanding the advertising campaign, and knowledge of the demand for different products will help the management to effectively plan their structure.

The result can be a cause of job satisfaction only if the reward is perceived fair (in line with expectations).

The connection between the factors influencing the motivation presented at

Figure 5.

In their actions as a manager, I will have to provide two

points:

Determine what can be achieved in the seller

assignment;

In order to choose the seller, for which the result will be the most significant.

To achieve this it is necessary to build a motivational profile of each of their employees, spending some time to chat with each of the workers to engage in a conversation, not related to the current work, the elucidation of its individual characteristics. Then, by comparing the received motivational profiles of possible results, I will be able to decide on the issuance of the task to a particular employee, of course, not forgetting the need to ensure motivators.

I stress the necessity of preparing motivational profile employee is not accidental. After all, different people value different rewards or results. This is due to the fact that the needs of different people are different, and that is the reward for one, can have a different value for another.

In our days, when the rate of inflation rising and purchasing power remains at the same level, money is a powerful motivator. But there are other incentives such as job satisfaction, career development, comfortable working conditions and attentive boss.

Here is an example. A friend of mine wrote an article that did not like her supervisor, as he immediately told in a rather harsh terms. Last words were: "I have made a mistake." In such a situation it is not surprising if people give up and believe in its futility. But she returned home, reviewed his article, defined what exactly was the wrong approach. Then, read a lot of books, magazines, has developed its own point of view on the problem and completely redid the first option. The head had to admit that the article is really good. What was the motivating factor for my friend? Respect for his supervisor and the desire to prove that it is able to write a good research paper, that is, for it was important to meet the needs of self-actualization. Motivation is largely also depends on the individual.

6. Application management functions J. Adair

and the theory of Tannenbaum and Schmidt to guide the development

store advertising campaign Panasonic

Ader building its functional leadership model based on the assumption that there are three types of needs: the needs of the individual needs of the group and needs (requirements) job. Adair synergetic model, that is based on the assumption that the main task manager is to reconcile the needs of individuals, groups and tasks so that their interaction contributed to increasing productivity. Adair has compiled a list of the eight major practical functions to be performed by the manager:

1. Statement of the job

2. Planning

3. Briefing

4. Control

5. Evaluation

6. Motivation

7. Organization

8. A personal example.

1. Statement of the job. Necessary to formulate the task team, that is to set goals and help to ensure that all team members perceived this as a common cause. Objectives - this is what helps us determine we performed the task or not. Formulating goals is useful to ask yourself the question: "How do we know that successfully completed the task?" Goals should be tangible and achievable.

2. Planning. Planning method is selected on the basis of:

- Time constraints (a manager has time to consult with all members of the team);

- Resource (who should advise you);

- Manager position in the team (the new leader appointed by the leader or elected leader);

- What powers does the manager.

3. Instruction. Its purpose is to achieve complete clarity in all of the team members as to what is required of them. Each team member should be able to ask questions and get explanations.

4. Control. The Head of the team is to supervise the progress of the work, control yourself. Subject to successful planning and coaching required strict control commands will not. "The secret to control is in clear view of what and when to be done, who should do it and

how "(Adair, 1983). Control includes setting standards,

which should regularly compare the results achieved

progress.

5. Evaluation. To produce a correct judgment on assignments necessary to evaluate:

- The consequences;

- The results of the team;

- People.

Evaluation of the consequences. Decision making and problem solving requires managers to assess the implications of adopting a course of action.

Performance evaluation should be performed at regular

meetings. First you need to come to an agreed common evaluation team effort. It may be:

- Success - all objectives are achieved;

- With limited success - and most of the goals achieved;

- Limited failure - too few goals achieved;

- Failure - none of the goals to be achieved.

The next step should be an objective evaluation of the performance. Start with the positive aspects, with an explanation of the reasons for the success achieved at the same time, analysis of the causes of failure allows people to learn from mistakes.

Evaluation is carried out or people in the qualifying interviews or parsing complaints and misconduct, as well as in the selection of candidates for promotion or for training.

6. Motivation. To motivate the team manager must:

- Identify the most valued team members remuneration;

- To link the receipt of remuneration in the quality of work;

- To convince the members of the team that they will receive these rewards, if merit.

7. Organization. Creating such a framework within which a team or working group can effectively fulfill its mission. The manager should take responsibility, at least initially, for the organization of the team, the allocation of tasks and monitoring progress.

8. A personal example. The manager is subject to scrutiny by their subordinates and his behavior depends largely on whether to install a climate of trust in the organization. If the manager used to talk openly, honestly, and take responsibility for their mistakes, subordinates follow suit.

Each function manager in real life can be illustrated by the following example. Guide magazine Panasonic agreed on the need to develop an advertising campaign. For this was formed by a group of vendors, advertising agencies "Granite" (Maikop) and accountant TSMPO MGTI. The objectives of the team have been collecting ideas and information, information processing, decision-making. Guide an assignment can only be effective if agreed three types of needs: individuals, groups and tasks. Therefore, you first need to identify these needs.

Requirements job. The advertising campaign should be as efficient as possible, that is to provide an increase in sales at minimal cost.

The needs of individuals. Head - self-actualization; Accountant - social needs; sellers - a powerful motivator for them are money (money can satisfy different needs, so we have allocated a result that will be appreciated the most); advertising agencies - the need for self-actualization and job satisfaction.

Needs groups: clear guidance, resources, measured the progress of the work and support.

As is evident, the needs of individuals and group assignment until consistent. To provide the required coordination necessary to perform management functions J. Adair.

1. Statement of the job. Strategic objectives - increase sales volume by 10%. Tactical approach - developing an advertising campaign with minimal cost (within 7,000 rubles.).

2. Planning for the development of the campaign was carried out by all members of the group. Below is a plan of action:

1.09 - 1.11

Sellers watch store traffic, constitute a profile of the average buyer.

Provide a report on the level of the average income of the client, his social status, demographic characteristics and geographic location (urban or stranger).

1.11 - 3.11

A meeting at which all members of the team decision about the capture of new market segments.

For example, outside the city, as well as consumers with an average income.

5.11 - 14.11 The representative of an advertising agency in accordance with the selected segment offers the most effective forms of advertising messages and the time (in print, on the radio), creates an image for television advertising.

15.11 Meeting at which evaluates proposals advertising agency coordination costs with the introduction of an accountant and, if necessary, change.

16.11 - 20.11 Introduction of changes (if necessary).

21.11 Payment for services of an advertising agency "Granite".

with 23.11 Implementation order advertising in the media

3. The briefing was made at a meeting in which everyone got a clear idea of ??what is required of them. Sellers are monitoring and provide a report. The form of the report is consistent with the representative of the manager of an advertising agency. The definition of working methods of questionnaire survey for customers within the competence of the sellers. Based on the data representative of an advertising agency offers a form of advertising, evaluates the potential costs, which are coordinated with the planned budget. Accountant pays for the services of an advertising agency.

4. Control of each stage is carried out in terms of previously planned, to verify that the work performed tasks assigned.

5. Evaluation

- Consequences: the desired effects - increased sales, profits and wages sellers; unwanted - costs not pay off; clear - the desired result will be somewhat lower than planned due to changes in the external environment.

- Results. Limited success.

- People. Form a judgment on the members of the group as a disciplined and executive employees.

6. Motivation. In the qualitative performance of all stages, detailed analysis of the number of consumers, most of the goals have been achieved, hence the need leaders and representatives of the advertising agency for self-actualization were satisfied. Accountant, more time for conducting routine work with the figures involved in decision-making meetings and therefore its social needs are met. The increase in sales volume resulted in an increase of wages sellers.

7. Organization. The manager has created a framework within which the working group was able to fulfill its mission.

8. A personal example. To focus attention on the importance of subordinates advertising manager involved in the management representatives of advertising agencies, showed him tribute vnimanie.Vypolnenie these eight functions (series or parallel) helped to coordinate the needs of the job, the individual and the group, and to achieve effective performance of the job.

An equally important factor was here and leadership style, reasonably selected based on the theory of situational leadership Tannenbaum and Schmidt. According to this theory the appropriate leadership style will depend on four variables:

- Head - his personal qualities and preferred leadership style;

- Submission - their needs, aspirations and skills;

- Quest - requirements and objectives of the work that must be done;

- Context - the organization, its values ??and traditions.

Tannenbaum and Schmidt suggested to consider a continuum of leadership styles that differ on how to use their power manager and the manager of degree of freedom provided by his subordinates.

In this situation, a leader in the strength of their ideas about how to deal with people who were supporters of the democratic approach. He trusts his subordinates and colleagues, what has all the bases. The project was new to him, to solve such problems it faced early, so found it possible to give free rein to his subordinates.

Subordinates willingly participated in decision-making, as has been great interest in increasing sales, and as a result, and wages. They are supporters of democratic management style.

The task was a creative and innovative, required the adoption of the set of critical decisions, and the involvement of more people management helps to reduce the likelihood of errors and improve the quality of decisions. Time to complete the task was not very much.

Context. TSMPO MGTI is an organization with a rigid hierarchical structure. The work of all structural units regulates many rules and regulations. Here is dominated by autocratic leadership style.

Diagram "best match" is shown in Fig. 7.

As can be seen from the diagram "best match", all variables

consistent with the democratic style of leadership.

In Figure 8, the selected style management (point A), characterized by a significant degree of freedom subordinate and limited use of the power manager.

Summarizing, we can say that the use of management theory in the practice of management activities allows us to achieve the objectives as planned, except irrational investment of time, resources and talent.

7. Management of change

in the field of marketing policy

Store Panasonic

Products Brands Panasonic and Technics has a good reputation and trust from customers for its quality and variety of goods. Products in the store Panasonic due to the high technical level is more expensive than the competition. This implies that the majority of our customers - people with expertise in hardware, with a high level of income. In addition, the products have demand from organizations such as banks, RA Parliament, commercial establishments and firms. As the demand for these segments of the market is practically saturated and there have been significant changes in the external environment, there is a need to expand the market.

Analysis of the external environment of the organization

(STEP-factors)

Social. In recent years, people change values. Halo created around the ideal socialist family, dim. People tend to live richly, convenient to use and high quality appliances. Offer audio-video equipment in the markets create demand, and as a result, consumer tastes have changed.

Technology. Continuous improvement of its products by Panasonic leads to an increase in demand for products. Optimization methods and techniques of production reduces costs and results in lower prices.

Economic. In recent years, there has been significant growth in the dollar. The result has been a rise in prices and inflation rates continue to increase, while the purchasing power remains at the same level.

Political. Now there is a significant impact on the mood of the masses of the opposition. People are afraid that in the economic zone will be banned circulation of foreign currency and the economy will be "closed". Therefore, they tend to invest their savings in durable goods.

Analysis of the external environment indicates that the next year the demand for clientelistic markets in which we are currently working to decrease (this trend has become sustainable). Demand from consumers with an average income increase.

This gives us the opportunity to increase sales, improve staff motivation and retain personnel, in the case of the relevant changes.

According to the model of diagnosis changes Nadler and TashMI when one of the elements of the internal or external environment of the organization should be changed and others if the organization wants to stay healthy. Change is required in the following areas of organizational life:

Objectives:

Expanding the range of products offered, in particular, cheaper audio and video (to preserve the company's image, the quality should be high) and home appliances for different purposes.

Research markets.

Carrying out an advertising campaign.

Search for new suppliers, evaluation of their reliability, the procurement of goods.

Organizational structures and systems:

Creation of marketing service.

The establishment of a flexible price system.

The increasing complexity of inventory systems and information used.

Tighter control by the accounting department.

Organizational culture.

Shop Panasonic is considered an organization with high culture of customer service and communication workers among themselves. The store has a reputation of roads, only for wealthy clients. This image is our forte and changes may be made solely on the fact that consumers with an average income could say, "This shop is for me!" This can be achieved only by properly conducted an advertising campaign and a well-planned range of products.

As a motivating factor for employees can be offered evenings awarding "Best seller of the year."

People.

Sellers need retraining in knowledge of functional features of household appliances, which will be presented in our store. Decline in the share of services performed under the order, and an increase in sales "over the counter" would entail an increased risk. Therefore it will be necessary to conduct market research, study the demand and to forecast sales with a sufficiently high degree of probability. This work will require a lot of professional experience and knowledge of methods for studying the market, planning and supply chain management.

Naturally, the path to the desired state, there will be resistance from both internal and external factors. To make decisions about the program of change, it is necessary to evaluate the driving and restraining forces, their relative power.

Dynamics

Restraining forces

1. Increased demand for machinery from buyers with an average income.

2. The ability to increase profits.

3. Perhaps the best motivation.

4. The potential of professional managers and salespeople.

1. Competitors (shop "Orion" and "Electron").

2. Lack of experience selling appliances in staff.

3. Traditional culture (the established corporate identity store Panasonic).

4. The dissatisfaction on the part of customers, attaches great importance to

own image.

Fig. 9 is a diagram of the force field, which displays the driving and restraining forces in this situation. The width of the arrows reflects the relative strength of forces.

The diagram shows that the power of the driving forces more power constraints, therefore, the change will be effective, that is, the benefits resulting from changes exceed the costs of the event.

Resistance can also be caused by:

Uzkosobstvennicheskimi interests;

Misunderstanding and lack of trust;

Different assessment of the situation;

Low tolerance for change;

Peer pressure;

Fatigue from changes;

Previous bad experience changes.

Nature of the change and the relationship established between management and subordinates, suggests that the resistance in the internal environment will be minimal. Thus, the change itself gives an advantage to material reward staff. People involved in the planning and well informed.

For the most successful changes can be used the following approach:

Education and information. Informing people about change before it happens, giving them the opportunity to ask questions and express their concerns about the proposed changes, as well as to create conditions for open communication. Education and awareness will help people understand why changes are needed and avoid some of the causes of resistance and based on a misunderstanding and different assessment of the situation.

Participation and involvement means that the initiators of change ready to listen to those people who are affected by the change, and use their advice. Approach with the use of participation and involvement is relevant in the circumstances, as management needs additional information and support to those who will be affected by the change.

Help and Support. It is necessary to hold a meeting to discuss common problems and to provide the necessary conditions to ensure that these employees have been heard or they were given moral support.

These approaches will be used to defrost stage. Implementation of the changes, in general, will be conducted in three phases:

- Thawing;

- Change;

- Zamorazhivanie.Razmorazhivanie - a stage where it is important to put people to change.

Characteristics of Phase Dates

1. Conduct meetings with employees at all levels, which will be described the current situation and the necessity of change. Employees will be asked to form their views on change and develop specific activities (depending on the proposals received, the steps on the stages of change can be changed). 01.12.98 city

2. Develop a program change with the participation of all employees. 01.05.99 city - 01.10.99 city

Change. The degree of expected resistance will be minimal, and enough power to change the initiator will help promote a change to a rapid end of the continuum. However, the limiting factor of the rapid changes will need to get the information (data marketing research) and to enlist the support of other people and organizations, in particular, the advertising agency "Granite". Therefore, the situation can be displayed in place of the continuum, a marked point A in Figure 10.

Events produced at step changes are as follows:

Characteristics of phase

Terms

of

Cost,

in rubles.

Creating marketing services provided by modern software packages for market research. 1.02.99 city - 01/03/99 was 6.000

Market research. Development of an advertising campaign. 03.01.99 city - 4.1.99 of 10,000

Assortment planning new products. 04.01.99 city - 15.04.99 city

The search for new suppliers, and evaluation of their

contracts for the supply on the most favorable terms. 15.04.99 city - 1.05.99 of 40,000

Promotion of products on the market. with 1.05.99, about 3,000 per month.

Freezing. At the stage of freezing fixed changes as a result of his conduct in the field of tasks, structures, systems and culture.

Evaluation of changes will be made on the following criteria:

- Technical and economic criteria - the increase in sales, profits, wages of employees, matching the time of the steps planned.

- Sociological criteria - level of professionalism, the income of workers.

Conclusion

In the course of the study yielded the following conclusions:

1. It is necessary to manager self-improvement in the areas of their time, effective delegation of authority and stress management.

2. Consider the theory of motivation, we came to the conclusion that the basis of all theories are theories of Maslow's needs and Alderfera.

3. The nature of work in the shop Panasonic determines the ability to meet the needs of all levels. Motivation - is not only a concern of the manager, the employee must analyze their own work and to look for ways to meet it, for it needs significant.

4. In order to effectively motivate the workforce must be a motivational profile of each employee to determine what can be achieved in the course of the assignment and charge it is to the one who will most appreciate the result.

5. argued the effectiveness of the theories of John. Adair and Tannenbaum and Schmidt to guide the development of an advertising campaign Store Panasonic, in particular, the most effective style of leadership task is democratic ("consult").

6. During the analysis of the external and internal environment of the organization identified the need to change in the marketing policy of the enterprise: focus on the market segment of middle-income, and an advertising campaign. A program of change at all stages: unfreezing, changing, freezing.

Table Of Contents:

Introduction. ............................................................................................................ 2

1. Characteristics of the research object. .................................................. ............................ 3

2. Relevance ................................................................................................ 8

3. Theories of motivation and their relationship ........................................... ........................ 13

3.1. Theory of Maslow's needs and as a basis for theories Alderfera ........................................................................................... 13

3.2. Rational-economic model .............................................. .................. 14

3.3. Social ............................................................................................. 15

3.4. Model ........................................................................ 15

3.5. Two-factor theory of motivation and job satisfaction Herzberg ...... 16

3.6. Integrated model of motivation. Psychological contract .................... 17

4. The possibility of applying theories of motivation for the shop Panasonic ............. 18

5. The practical application of theories waiting ............................................ .................... 21

6. Application management functions J. Adair and Tannenbaum and Schmidt's theory to guide the development of an advertising campaign Store Panasonic. 26

7. Management of change in the field of marketing

Store Policies Panasonic ............................................. .................... 34

...................................................................................................... 41

Literature.

Literature.

1. An effective manager. Book 1. "Management of themselves."

2. An effective manager. Book 2. "Communication (communication)."

3. An effective manager. Book 4. "Motivation and design work."

4. An effective manager. Book 7. "Management and power."

5. An effective manager. Book 10. "Organization: culture and quality."

6. An effective manager. Book 11. "Change Management".

7. Pugh DS, DJ Hickson. "Researchers on organizations. Reader ". -M.,

- 1997.

8. Effective Manager: views and illustrations. / Ed. J. Billsberri, -M., -1997.

Speech. Dear Board of Examiners!

We offer a master's thesis on "Theories of motivation, their relationship and the practical application of the example of the store Panasonic .

Shop Panasonic sells audio and video appliances. Customers are offered a wide range of services for the delivery, installation, equipment and warranty service. Shop Panasonic is a subdivision TSMPO MGTI engaged in commercial activities.

I am an administrator of the store, my responsibilities include:

Monitor the appearance of the store.

Advise on placement of goods and price tags.

Provide information about the timing of delivery of the sellers of the goods.

Formation of a portfolio of orders in the course of working with clients.

Work with suppliers.

Control of sellers.

Recently, changes in the economic life of the country, had a negative impact on the activities of the store, the result was a decline in sales volume, lower wages sellers (established form of remuneration "percentage of sales"). Under these conditions is particularly important effective leadership, the best motivation of staff and changes in the marketing policy of the enterprise. These factors and was due to the choice of theme of the thesis.

With regard to good governance, it is necessary to manage their time, delegation of authority to subordinates and need from time to time to deal with paperwork.

Now about motivation.

The theory of motivation theory of Maslow's needs are and Alderfera. Application of the theory needs is to ensure that remuneration in line with the pressing needs of the individual. Three theories

E. Shane differ only in that of paramount importance different needs.

Rational-economic model

According to this model, the main motivator for people is a personal economic interest, that is, people are trying to do so, to get the maximum possible material and financial rewards.

Social model

It can be described briefly as follows:

At work people are motivated primarily by social needs;

People's behavior more strongly influenced by their fellow workers than managerial control and promotion;

People react to guide the extent to which management ensure that their needs are being involved in the recognition and self-esteem.

The model of self-actualization

According to the model of self-actualization, people want to participate in decisions that directly affect their work, but in this case it is possible to achieve commitment and dedication of employees in their organization.

Convincing evidence of fair model of self-actualization gives study conducted by Herzberg.

Two-factor theory of motivation

and job satisfaction Herzberg

The basis of this model is that a sense of satisfaction or dissatisfaction is determined by two groups of factors: hygiene (reflect the degree of dissatisfaction) and motivational factors or satisfaction.

The disadvantages of each of the above models is the claim to universality. Each of the models is confirmed only under certain conditions.

Integrated model of motivation.

Integrated model of motivation proposed by E. Shane tries to take into account the variability and diversity of motives of human behavior. In this model, human needs and motivational factors vary depending on the situation, in which people come and their life experience and expectations of age.

According to Shane, managers should be good diagnosticians, appreciate the differences. Shane put forward a concept, naming the psychological contract. It can help in the diagnosis manager motivation.

Psychological contract. This theory allows the use of elements of all three simple models of motivation: the rational-economic, social and samooaktualizatsii. Motivation is formed in the relationship of the employee and the employing organization. These relationships are governed by the psychological contract, tacitly concluded by both parties. Individual expects from the organization of certain fees for the work invested in the individual resources - energy, talent, ability and time. The organization also has certain expectations about the contribution of the individual to work and some representation on remuneration, which should, in response to the employee.

Researchers studied the theory of motivation motivation of workers of different professions and different content of labor.

Each study will get different results and argue that, in practice, need to apply one or another model would be wrong.

From all this it can be an important goal for our research methodological conclusion: the nature of work, the missing elements in it for the harmonious development of personality and motivation are the determining factors.

To put into practice the store Panasonic theory of motivation is necessary to determine the nature of the work shop sellers and see how the desirability of establishing a system of remuneration.

The nature of work is such that involves constant interaction with colleagues, customers, finding individual approach to each individual, hence the need for social Seller can be fully satisfied. Installed wage system "percentage of sales" encourages sellers to increase sales volume, if for them is important in its cost. The increase in sales can only be a closer relation to the client, improving ways of interacting with them. That is due to the relationship with other people. There is a close relationship in meeting social and economic needs. Remains unsolved question whether there are real opportunities to meet the needs of growth?

The need for regular contacts sellers with customers leads to the fact that the seller receives a lot of experience in communication, a database for the analysis of near misses and successful moments, and on the basis of their observations can develop a strategy for communicating with customers. The consequence is ideally chosen strategy and tactical approaches may be gaining recognition and credibility. From the above it can be concluded: Seller work occurs in two fields: social and economic. Moreover, they are closely related, as the success of the first field is the determining factor for success in the second. But success can be achieved through professional development and communication skills of the employee.

Thus, the nature of the work makes it possible to meet the needs of all levels, which for a given individual are pressing at the moment.

In all of these are still theories of motivation assumes that people are motivated by the desire to meet their needs. However, the manager's job is not limited to a choice of rewards and incentives. Approach, which focuses on the relationship between efforts, the quality of performance and reward, called the theory of expectations.

Any theory is valuable only if it can be applied in practice. I used it to motivate the collection of data on store traffic and demand for a particular commodity. The required data can be based on a purely visual, intuitive feeling sellers or be obtained empirically. In order for the data to be accurate and most fully reflect reality, required constant monitoring and precise fixing of the number of visitors and the goods sold by nomenclatures. Additional efforts will be made by sellers only if the sellers are confident that increased efforts may increase the likelihood of obtaining compensation.

The link between effort and performance indicators is shown in Fig. 1.

In their actions as a manager, I will have to provide two

points:

Determine what can be achieved in the seller

assignment;

In order to choose the seller, for which the result will be the most significant.

To achieve this it is necessary to build a motivational profile of each of their subordinates.

For effective management of an advertising campaign, I proposed to apply the function J. Ader:

1. Statement of the job

2. Planning

3. Briefing

4. Control

5. Evaluation

6. Motivation

7. Organization

8. Personal primer.Rukovodstvo store Panasonic decided on the need to develop an advertising campaign. For this group was formed, whose objectives were to collect ideas and information, information processing, decision-making.

Ensuring harmonization of the job needs of the individual and the group was carried out through the use of management functions Adair. Was established the framework within which the group has been able to effectively fulfill its mission. Her you can see in Figure 2.

An equally important factor was here and leadership style, reasonably selected based on the theory of situational leadership Tannenbaum and Schmidt. According to this theory the appropriate leadership style will depend on four variables:

- Head - his personal qualities and preferred leadership style;

- Submission - their needs, aspirations and skills;

- Quest - requirements and objectives of the work that must be done;

- Context - the organization, its values ??and traditions.

As can be seen from the diagram "best match" in Figure 3, all variables are consistent with a democratic style of leadership.

In Figure 4, the selected style management (point A), characterized by a significant degree of freedom subordinate and limited use of the power manager.

Products Brands Panasonic and Technics has a good reputation and trust from customers for its quality and variety of goods. Products in the store Panasonic due to the high technical level is more expensive than the competition. This implies that the majority of our customers - people with expertise in hardware, with a high level of income. In addition, the products have demand from organizations such as banks, RA Parliament, commercial establishments and firms. As the demand for these segments of the market is practically saturated and there have been significant changes in the external environment, there is a need to expand the market.

Analysis of the external environment of the organization of social, economic, technological and political factors showed that demand for appliances from consumers with an average income increase.

This gives us the opportunity to increase sales, improve staff motivation and retain personnel, in the case of the relevant changes.

According to the model of diagnosis changes Nadler and TashMI when one of the elements of the internal or external environment of the organization should be changed and others if the organization wants to stay healthy. Change is required in the following areas of organizational life:

Tasks.

Organizational structures and systems.

Organizational culture.

People.

Naturally, the path to the desired state, the resistance will be.

Nature of the change and the relationship established between management and subordinates, suggests that the resistance in the internal environment will be minimal. Thus, the change itself gives an advantage to material reward staff. People involved in the planning and well informed.

For the most successful changes can be used the following approach:

Education and information.

Participation and involvement.

Help and Support.

These approaches will be used to defrost stage where it is important to put people to change. Implementation of the changes, in general, will be conducted in three phases:

- Thawing;

- Change;

- Freezing.

At the stage of change will be implemented the following activities:

Creation of marketing services provided by modern software packages for market research.

Research the market. Development of an advertising campaign.

Planning range of new products.

The search for new suppliers, and evaluation of their

contracts for the supply on the most favorable terms.

Promotion of products on the market.

Freezing. At the stage of freezing fixed changes as a result of his conduct in the field of tasks, structures, systems and culture.

Evaluation of changes will be made on the following criteria:

- Technical and economic criteria - the increase in sales, profits, wages of employees, matching the time of the steps planned.

- Sociological criteria - level of professionalism, the income of workers.

The connection between the factors influencing the motivation

Structure

created to develop an advertising campaign

Chart

best match

Theory Tannenbaum and Schmidt

for the optimal management style

development of advertising campaigns


  












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