трусики женские украина
Transportation of cement - Management
The objective of this course project to identify five specialized vehicles most efficient car for the transportation of the specified load (ie cement in bags).
All used cars are equipped with tents, for greater safety of the physical-chemical properties of the cargo. Which in turn imposes certain imprint on the performance of loading - unloading. Ie loading - unloading can be done only through the tailgate of the vehicle.
In this course project is considered mechanized - manual handling option: paketoformirujushchee machine puts the bags on pallets, electric pallet moves directly into the body of the car where there is an overload and stacking bags from a pallet on the floor of the truck loaders. Shipping pallets wasted due to the geometric dimensions of the pallet 1240h840h160.
In carrying out the calculation of the threshold coefficient adaptation Body SS on duty were the most adapted geometrical parameters of the car GAZ-3307, since it has the least molded depth.
When comparing the SS on the technical and operational indicators
(Hourly productivity in tons (Wq) and t.km. (Wp)) it became clear that most car manufacturers truck KAMAZ-5410 + n / pr OdAZ-9370.
When calculating the fuel consumption rates in five brands of PS can be seen that the AM GAZ-3307 the lowest fuel consumption. The biggest fuel consumption of trains KamAZ-5410 + n / pr OdAZ-9370.
In calculating the time of delivery was found that the minimum time for delivery of cargo spends GAZ-3307. But as the difference is very small and insignificant we can say that all the cars spend equal time for shipping.
However, the choice of rolling stock in terms of productivity and turnaround time is not final, as there is always a car, having a large production, minimizes operational costs. In addition, the performance measure does not reflect the economic efficiency of the rolling stock. Therefore, for the final solution of the problem it is necessary to compare selected models of rolling stock on such final indicator as transportation costs. The cost of transportation is a general indicator for assessing the effectiveness of the use of a particular brand of rolling stock. Therefore, economically viable and profitable will be rolling with a minimum value of cost, namely tractor KAMAZ-5410 + n / pr OdAZ-9370.
11. The structural part
Calculation of the connecting rod bolts.
The gap is due to the connecting rod bolts:
1). Insufficient strength bolts, and is accompanied by disclosure of the joint and the formation on its surface work hardening;
2). Excessive tightening of the bolts, accompanied by stress of the material with a further loosening.
Destruction of bolts may also wear a purely fatigue character of additional bending stresses caused by insufficient rigidity of the head and crank neparalelnostyu bearing surfaces of the bolt head and nut. The magnitude of these stresses can not be taken into account by calculation. According to experimental data, the bending stress may constitute 25-30% of the tensile stresses arising when tightening. To reduce bending stress reduces the diameter of the bolt head and nut and spherical bearings are used.
The maximum force of inertia, tearing head crank and connecting rod bolts ,. Accept the nominal diameter of the bolt; pitch; number of bolts. Material - steel 40KhN.
Tables (1) alloy steel 40KhN define:
ultimate strength, yield strength tensile fatigue - compression;
factor ghosts cycle tensile - compression.
According to formula determines
;. (10.1.) (1)
The strength of the preload
. (10.2.) (1)
The total force, tensile bolt:
where ? = 0,2.
The maximum and minimum stresses in the bolt:
; (10.4) (1)
The average voltage and amplitude of the cycle:
; (10.6.) (1)
; (10.7) (1)
gdeopredelyaetsya on the table; and, when determined by the table, the table is determined by the (rough Turning).
Since then the stock bolt strength is determined by the fatigue limit
Table Of Contents
1. The task for course project 4
2. Cargo and transport characteristics of 5
3. paketoformirujushchee Appliances 8
4. The method of handling 9
5. The choice of rolling stock 11
6. The threshold coefficient adaptation Body PS
on duty 14
7. Permissible axial load 14
8. Comparison of five One unit of the SS on the technical and ex-
pluatatsionnym indicators 15
9. Operating expenses 21
10. Cost of transportation 24
11. The structural part 26
12. Safety in the organization
transport process 28
13. Transportation and process
of delivery 29
14. Conclusion 35
15. References 37
The Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation
Krasnoyarsk State Technical
Major: "Organization of transport
management and security
to the course project
selection and justification of specialized motor
vehicles for the transport of cement in bags
Completed: Art. 5th year
Check: Omyshev MG
Krasnoyarsk 2001 g.Vvedenie
Scientific and technological progress in transport developed in the following areas: integration and unification of the packages; specialty vehicles and means of the processing load on the entire en route; greater organization, mechanization and automation of technological processes; representation of complex transport services at coordinated technical and operational cooperation between all modes of transport involved in integrated systems through a demon reloading messages optimal routes "from door to door."
The transport process is the most dynamic element of the transport condition of the goods, which as a result of scientific and technical progress undergoes substantial transformation.
Impact of the transport of the cargo for transportation and transshipment facilities and transportation technology was particularly evident when transporting small sized cargo.
Small sized loads in all large quantities are transported in the form of consolidated packages. In the first stage as a means of strengthening the packages were used packets generated on universal pallets. Performance of production lines increased. Organization through traffic "from door to door shipper consignee" helped to solve three major problems of transportation:
1.Sokratit total time of delivery;
2.Snizit cost of transportation;
3.Avtomatizirovat process accounting and planning of traffic flow.
All this led to a radical restructuring of the transport system. In the field of logistics needed to create a park of large containers that meet international and national standards and specialized vehicles; build terminals with powerful conveyor technology; create a container areas at railway stations, river wharves.
For permanent loading and unloading points characteristic uniform selection of elements that make up the complex equipment required for the normal operation of the points.
These elements are: warehousing, consisting of closed storage space, as well as open and semi-enclosed areas for storage of goods; weight of the device; means of mechanization of loading and unloading operations in the required quantity and variety, change of working equipment to and rigging equipment; means of rapid communication, etc.
One of the most widespread means of mechanization of cargo handling and storage operations are roller track. Roller tracks generally consist of a frame and multiple rollers which are arranged parallel to each other and perpendicular to the direction of movement of the load. Cargo moving on the roller track from top to bottom, encounters very little resistance to the rotating rollers to overcome the track which is sufficient to give the inclination angle of the horizon 2-6k.
From other small machines that benefit when working in warehouse conditions, it is worth mentioning-handcarts transpaletty specifically designed for loading and unloading operations related to the movement of goods in containers or small or packaged on pallets standard sample. Transpaletta a fork hand truck with a hydraulic lift. The trolley consists of a frame with a fork, hydraulic pump, fork lift drive, two front swivel wheels and running two rear road wheels.
1.Zadanie on the course project
Type of cargo: cement in bags
The annual volume of 14,977 tons perevozok-.
Number of shippers -1 (cement plant)
Number gruzopunktov- 5
Plant manufacturing reinforced concrete structures
The distance between the consignor and the consignee 12, 44, 88, 97, 133km.
No. of vehicles transporting -5
Based on the needs of the customer (the urgency of delivery, mode of storage of goods, operation service companies in the conditions stipulated by the contract, etc.), establish the range of import cargo.
We define the average daily demand for cargo Qcc, t / day;
where Dp-working days, Au ? The use of the park, n-number of consumers.
Since the demand at the store one ton of cement per day, the goods will be delivered 1 time in 15 days. At the warehouse №1 - 2 times in three days, respectively, as he need to 10 tons of cement per day. At the warehouse №2 PONV. 20 tons of cement per day, delivery means will be 3 to 4 times a day. At the construction site every day requires 2 tons of cement delivery - 1 time for 8 days. Finally Reinforced Concrete consumes daily 45 tons of cement, of course delivery will be 3 times den.2.Gruz and transport characteristics.
At different stages of the economic cycle production-transportation-consumption, the result of work every time is a new quality. In the first stage (production) of the material is the result of social labor product, ie category that has value and use value. The product can completely or partly be used for consumption or sale elsewhere-product. In the second stage from the transfer of transport for spatial displacement product becomes cargo, ie object transport. In the third stage, i.e. in the implementation of consumer cost, load again called product. Under the scheme: the product-item-load product.
Cargo transport characteristics is a property of the goods, which manifests itself in the process of transportation and defines the process. In cargo transport characteristics include: physical and chemical properties, volume-mass indices, packaging, storage modes, congestion and transportation. Specific set of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the transport cargo vehicle called the state of the load.
Cement refers to construction materials to the 1st class of solid cargo in Division-packaged packaging and piece goods. The group require protection from the environment.
Cement requires protection from moisture. When wetting the cement hardens and thus making it unsuitable for further use. And zatarivatsya hot.
Cement is transported in paper bags. Dimensions of the package: 750-400-160mm and weight 50kg. Stowage volume of 0.7 m / t.
2.3.Tara, packaging, labeling cargo.
In bags carry a variety of loads that do not require protection from mechanical damage. Bags are soft packaging material for manufacturing are fabric, paper, plastic and bast. Sizes of bags are set by state standards.
In the standard documentation for the carriage of goods, packaging is encrypted alphanumeric code. Code number defines the kind of packaging, the letter-rod material. The first group of numbers defines the shipping container, the latter - Consumer 12B-12B.
Paper bags are produced multilayer (up to six the number of layers). Tarred paper bags are airtight and waterproof, acid-resistant. At elevated temperatures and humidity decreases the strength of bags, especially paper. It is important for the safety of cement, which zatarivatsya hot.
Marking referred to various inscriptions, drawings, signs and symbols, which are applied to the packages. The label indicates: Destination prescribed by cargo, type of cargo handling during storage, handling, transportation, unpacking.
Markings: here open - open, here-hier, offnen-ouvrir ici (Russo-angl.-nem. Fran.); net mass-netto-nettogewicht-peidc net; place № - case№ - kollo NR - colis N; purchase order № - nariad № - nariad№; export - export - export - export; and m. d.2.4.Rezhim storage. The method of storage.
For storage of cement is better to use non-heated or metallic cal warehouses. For storage of goods used in flat stacks, rack-mount
pallets; bespolochnye racks and frame cell, blind, communicating, gravity, mobile, console, W - shaped shelves.
Industrial warehouses are an integral part of the overall production process. They affect the overall
rhythm and organization of production, in-plant traffic flows, external transport delays in cargo fronts the company, its layout, etc.
By appointment industrial warehouses are divided into the following: storage material - logistics, storage of finished products, production - technology stocks.
To the storage of material - technical support, include all works general warehouses, through which the company receives raw materials, materials, products; blanks needed for production. One of these is the warehouse inventory - general cargo, which stores a variety of goods in boxes, barrels, bags and so on. D.
Warehouses material - technical supply the following functions: reception of products for industrial purpose in quantity and quality of enterprises and transport organizations; loading and unloading from vehicles; Order of road transport for centralized export of goods to consumers; storage of goods in accordance with the required standards from the moment of arrival to the issue of transport for delivery to consumers; Picking, packaging and delivery of materials at the request of consumers; registration documents received and issued from the warehouse goods, accounting and reporting on acceptance, delivery and availability of goods in stock; periodic inventory of stocks and goods.
The characteristic features of the material warehouses - logistics are large periods of storage of goods (from 20-25 days in the warehouses of industrial enterprises, up to 70-90 days or more on the supply and marketing material bases - logistics); arrival of goods external transport, and hence perhaps more uneven traffic
Arrival and large batches of arrival of goods; the need for good communication and clear technical, economic and legal relationship to the railway station and trucking companies to deliver goods; the need to link with a large number of suppliers of goods and so on. d.
Figure 1 Laying of cement in bags on a pallet triple;
A view from above; b-sboku.3.Paketoformiruyuschaya Appliances
Generic code bunching technique is formed from the serial numbers of elements in groups and has the following form:
XXX. XX. XX. H. XXX.
The first element is the form of packaged goods, the second method of forming a package, the third-type of a unit, the fourth-species, the fifth - design features.
For example, the code 22.214.171.124.101. means that provides a means paketoformirujushchee packetizing unit loads (1) in flexible containers (1), a size (1) ro (1) on support means (1), a pallet (1), flat (1) 1200H800mm. structurally stationary means are adapted to (1), with an electromechanical actuator (1). The tenth digit in the code reflects a sign of self-propelled or non-powered portable package forming machines. For stationary machines, give the number "0" .3.1.Tehnicheskaya paketoformirujushchee characteristics of the machine:
Machine type: 4M2-50
A method of forming a package: horizontal on aids.
Design features - stationary, with an electromechanical drive and automatic control.
Productivity t / hr 140
Feature package - tee 6-7 rows of bags 50kg maximum weight 1260 kg package.
Overall dimensions, mm - 4470H3680H2950
Weight, t - 3.33
Installed power, kW-14.9
Code - 126.96.36.199.3.2.Sredstvo packaging
Rooms on the elements of the classification are their codes. The first digit indicates the group of elements of classification, the second -poryadkovy item number in the group. Generic code a unit formed of the serial numbers of elements in groups and has the following form: HH H. XX. XX. XXX. The first element is the appointment of a unit, the second method of contacting the third - type (type), the fourth-species constructs fifth, sixth - technological possibility.
Pallet: versatile, multi-turn, flat, two grazing reversible NLC 1240H840H1350; Capacity-1250; code-188.8.131.52.13.100;
4.Sposob loading and unloading.
In road transport, various forms of handling. The most common of these is the performance of work by means of consignors and consignees at constant consolidation of cargo handling machines, machine operators, cargo
sors and slingers of freight positions or points. In this form is achieved the need for specialization of workers and machines for production conditions of loading and unloading, cargo mind, to the types of rolling stock, which ultimately contributes to increased productivity in loading and unloading cargo.
Loading cement sent in bags, carry out small-sized battery forklift.
Similarly are unloaded cement.
Depending on the vehicles for loading (unloading) manavrirovanie forklift has more or less complex, because it can only produce PR by operation previously open side of the vehicle. The trajectory of the truck also depends on whether the vehicle parallel or perpendicular to the stack of cargo and whether to loading (unloading) from the rear, one or both side walls.
4.1.Kratkaya characteristics of small-sized battery forklift
LSC - 04
Model Loader KHP - 04
Carrying capacity, t. 1.5
The length of 2,970m with forks.
The width of 1.0m.
The duration of the operating cycle, c. 137
Fig. Option vehicle load forklift during cargo operations from the rear side of the vehicle
5.Vybor rolling stock
5.1. GAZ 3307 (4x2) with awning
Capacity - 4,5t
Curb weight of 3200 kg.
maximum speed of 90 km / h.
technical speed of 39 km / h
fuel consumption of 19.6 l / 100km
Body interior dimensions:
length of 3740mm.
width of 2170mm.
height of 610mm.
5.2. ZIL 431410 (4x2)
Load capacity - 6000 kg.
curb weight 2510 kg.
maximum speed of 85 km / h.
technical speed 35km / h
Fuel consumption at 60 km / h. 25.8 l. / 100km.
engine size 6L ..
Cored oil body dimensions:
length of 3752mm.
width of 2326mm.
height of 575mm.
5.3. Kamaz 53212 (with a sleeping bag)
Produced Kama Automobile Plant since 1979. designed for continuous operation with a trailer. Body-platform, opening side and rear boards and awning. Triple cabin, all-metal, flip forward, equipped with Seat belt anchor.
The main trailer for KAMAZ-53212 GKB-8352.
Load capacity - 10t
Permissible trailer weight of 14,000 kg.
Curb Weight - 8200 kg.
Including the front axle 3600 kg.
>> >> Truck 4600 kg.
gross weight 18225 kg.
including the front axle 4425 kg.
>> >> Truck 14000 kg.
maximum speed of 80 km / h.
diesel engine is a V-shaped
fuel tank 250l
technical speed of 36 km / h.
fuel consumption of 24.4 l. / 100km.
undercuts body size:
length of 6100mm.
width of 2320mm.
height of 500mm.
5.4.MAZ 53371 (4x2)
Gross weight of 16,000 kg
speed of 85km / hr.
technical speed of 35 km / h
control fuel consumption of 21.5 l / 100km
V engine 11,15l
Body interior dimensions 4965h2350h685
width of 2350mm.
height of 685mm.
5.5. Tractor-trailer as part of a truck tractor KAMAZ 5410 + semitrailer ODAZ - 9370
Semi - vans OdAZ issued Odessa car assembly plant with 1965, Hrachia. Since 1969. Kherson factory produced.
Body frameless, with base plate, tselnometalliesky, riveted. The support device has a mechanical drive. Drum brake: working with pneumatic drive, with mechanical parking.
Load capacity - 14200 kg.
semitrailer 4900kg curb weight.
gross weight of the semitrailer 19100 kg.
internal dimensions 9180h2320h560
maximum speed of 80 km / h.
technical speed 32km / h
diesel engine is a V-shaped
Fuel consumption at 60 km / h. 35 l. / 100km.
Gross vehicle weight 14900kg tractor.
Brief technical characteristics of cars
VT, km / h tpr hour TH, h
GAZ-3307 4.5 39 0.49 8
ZIL-431 410 6 37 8 0.62
MAZ-53371 35 8.7 0.72 8
Kamaz 53212 10 36 0.8 8
KamAZ-5410 + OdAZ 14.2 32 0.96 8
5.6.Razmeschenie cargo on vehicles
GAZ-3307 at q = 4,5t (3740h2170h610)
Will house 90 bags
Weight of cargo: 4500kg.
ZIL-431410 for q = 6m (3752h2326h575)
Capacity of 120 bags
Weight of cargo: 6000kg.
MAZ-53371 with q = 8,7t (4965h2350h685)
Accommodate 174 bag
Weight of cargo: 8700kg.
4. KAMAZ-53212 with q = 10t (6100h2320h500)
Accommodate 200 bags
Weight of cargo: 10000KG.
5. KAMAZ 5410 + n / trailer OdAZ-9370 at q = 14,2t (9180h2320h560)
Accommodate 284 bag
Weight of cargo: kg.14200kg
6.Porogovy coefficient adaptation Body SS on duty
The criterion threshold adaptation of the body is the threshold factor of fitness for duty AQ
where (6.1). (5)
z-bulk cargo weight
-udealnaya bulk load-carrying capacity (geometric)
where (6.2). (5)
-naminalnaya Capacity PBX t.
^ -a geometric volume of the body,
For example, for the GAZ-3307
Z = 0,7
For other brands we reduce PS data in Table 6.1.
Threshold coefficient adaptation Body
Mark PS Uv Aq
GAZ-3307 0.9 0.77
ZIL-431410 1.19 0.58
MAZ-53371 1.08 0.64
Kamaz 53212 1.41 0.5
KAMAZ 5410 + n / pr 1.19 0.58
Conclusion: The most adapted geometrical parameters of a body in automo Beal GAZ-3307 for the carriage of cement in bags, because AQ above, compared with the OS marks tal MS.
7.Dopustimaya axial load
All selected ATS belong to the group B (cars and trains, Predna values ??for use on all roads total network Russia) since wasp-hand they did not load> 6t.
8.Sravnenie five One unit of the SS on the technical and operational indicators
Selecting PS, based on the analysis of technical and operational parameters to find the most effective model for the transport of cargo.
8.1.Chasovaya performance in tonnes (WQ) and so on. Km. (Wp):
For other brands we reduce PS data in table 8.1. and plot
Performance including by brand PS
ZIL GAZ 3307 431410 MAZ Kamaz 53212 Kamaz 53371 + p / pr
12 0.5 3.02 3.70 5.05 5.5 7.47
44 0.5 1.08 1.39 1.98 2.23 3.07
88 0.5 0.57 0.75 1.08 1.22 1.74
97 0.5 0.52 0.68 0.98 1.12 1.57
133 0.5 0.38 0.51 0.73 0.84 1.17
Figure 8.1. A plot of hourly productivity in WQ t. Distance transport
8.2.Chasovaya performance t. Km. (Wp):
For other brands we reduce PS data in Table 8.2. and plot
Hour performance cars
Productivity in tkm / h on marks SS
3307 ZIL 431410 MAZ Kamaz 53212 Kamaz 53371 + p / pr
12 0.5 36.24 44.44 60.69 66.66 90.47
44 0.5 47.63 61.58 87.26 98.50 135.04
88 0.5 50.61 66.38 95.06 108.19 150.67
97 0.5 50.88 66.87 95.86 109.19 152.31
133 0.5 51.69 68.18 98.03 111.92 156.81
Fig. 8.2.Grafik dependence of the performance of five One unit of PS on the length of
Haulage with load
8.3.Normiruemy fuel consumption
For on-board trucks or trains normalized values ??of fuel consumption: for example, cars do work in conditions that do not require the use of surcharges or reductions, then:
-normativny fuel consumption, liters
-probeg car or train, km.
a linear rate of fuel consumption for transport work; l / 100t.km.
-basic linear rate of fuel consumption per stroke l / 100km
Gasoline = 2n / 100t.km.
for Diesel. Fuel = 1.3 l / 100t.km
/ for trains Hs increases per tonne own weight n / trailer depending on the type of fuel:
gasoline -2l / 100km.
for diz.toplivo -1.3 l / 100 km.
Calculate fuel consumption for vehicles with
The rest of the calculations we reduce consumption rates in tabl.8.3. and plot Qn = f (ler).
Calculate rates of the five brands of PS can be seen that the AM GAZ-3307 less fuel consumption. The biggest fuel consumption of trains KamAZ-5410s p / pr. OdAZ 9370
The dependence of the rated fuel consumption of the length Haulage with load
ler, normability km fuel consumption on marks SS liters
ZIL GAZ 3307 431410 MAZ Kamaz 53212 Kamaz 53371 + p / pr
12 3.43 4.53 4.66 5.32 7.60
44 12.58 16.63 17.11 19.53 27.89
88 25.16 33.26 34.23 39.07 55.79
97 27.74 36.6 37.7 43.06 61.49
133 38.03 50.27 51.73 59.05 84.32
Fig. 8.3.Grafik normalized fuel consumption depending on the length of
Haulage loaded with five One unit of the SS
8.4.Vremya of delivery
We reduce the remaining data in table 8.4.
The dependence of the time of delivery of the rolling stock
Haulage length with a cargo
ler, km time of delivery, h
ZIL GAZ 3307 431410 MAZ Kamaz 53212 Kamaz 53371 + p / pr
12 0.75 0.81 0.86 0.9 0.95
44 1.37 1.45 1.52 1.62 1.85
88 2.5 2.69 2.88 2.84 3.23
97 4.28 4.35 4.44 4.49 4.52
133 5.78 5.86 5.9 5.94 6.02
Using the data plotted on tg ler
Ris.8.4. A plot of the time of delivery of cement rolling stock on the length Haulage with load
The graph shows that the car GAZ-3307 is the shortest time of delivery.
Operating expenses consist of the following cost items:
1). The main and additional wages of drivers with deductions.
2). Fuel costs.
3). Expenditure on consumables.
4). Maintenance costs and maintenance.
5). Expenditure on compensation of wear and tire repair.
All these articles are costing divided into two groups of costs: variable and fixed.
The cost of fuel and lubricants, maintenance and repair of rolling stock, compensation of wear and tire repair, depreciation on rolling stock with the currently existing methods of rationing vary depending on the vehicle mileage. These groups have varying cost.
All other costs are called persistent because they do not depend on the path. When you split the costs into variable and fixed, wages of drivers conventionally assumed to be constant.
Variable and fixed costs include the costs of transport companies and automotive component called the cost of transportation.
Total operating expenses for transportation of goods by road 1t is given by:
Se = CHR + ADD (9.1.) (5)
Where the fixed costs;
instance variables costs;
9.2.zarplata per ton of transported:
(RUB / t) (9.2.) (5)
where-hour tariff rate rub. / h;
load capacity of the vehicle, ie
-statichesky utilization duty tr.sr.
-time spent on loading, unloading of the vehicle
= (? / t)
(RUB / t)
(RUB / t)
(RUB / t)
(RUB / t)
9.3. per tonne-kilometers performed:
(RUR / tkm) (9.3.) (5)
where vm-speed technical tr.sr.
coefficient of run
(RUR / tkm)
(RUR / tkm)
(RUR / tkm)
(RUR / tkm)
(RUR / tkm)
(9.4.) The cost of fuel: (rub. / Ton km)
(RUR / tkm) (9.4.) (5)
Where Tst- selling price of fuel, rub / l;
Bt- coefficient taking into account the additional fuel consumption in winter and intragarage needs, Wt = 1.05
Vkm- rate of fuel consumption in l / 100 km;
Vtkm FURTHER rate of fuel consumption for transport
the work L / (m away).
(RUR / tkm)
(RUR / tkm)
(RUR / tkm)
(RUR / tkm)
(RUR / tkm)
9.5.Raskhody on consumables
Expenditures for maintenance materials account for 22% of the fuel costs for the rolling stock, ie
(RUR / tkm) (9.5.) (5)
(9.6.) The cost of maintenance and repair:
0.45% of the book value of the car at 1000km. Run.
Gdenorma costs for maintenance and current repairs, rub / 1000km.
(9.7.) The cost of compensation of wear and tire repair (:
gdeotpusknaya price of one tire rub .;
norm on retreaded tires,% / 1000 km;
the number of tires without replacement.
9.8. contributions for the restoration of the rolling stock (
gdekoeffitsient, taking into account the delivery of transport,
rate deductions for a full recovery, rub / 1000 km away from the book value of the car.
Total operating expenses for transportation of goods by road 1t:
Se = CHR + Ofs
10. Cost of transport
transportation costs calculated by the formula:
where C1-variable costs, USD / km;
All the results we reduce to the table 10
Kamaz Kamaz 53212 + p / pr
The cost of transportation is a general indicator for assessing the effectiveness of the use of a particular brand of rolling stock. Therefore, cost-effective will be rolling with a minimum amount of cost, namely, tractor KAMAZ 5410 + trailer
Fig. 10.Grafik cost depending on the distance perevozki13.Transportno-process delivery.
Reduce the size of the stock of goods in industries contributes to a clear, uninterrupted transport service organization. Such an organization can be achieved quite modern process of delivery.
The technological process of delivery of goods in general and in each phase is a set of interrelated partial processes. With the development of technology identifies specific patterns of the production process in order to identify the names of operations and determine their duration. With regard to the transport of cement is a set of methods, techniques and methods of moving goods from producer to consumer (to the consignee's warehouse). In Table 13. Shows the development of transport and process of delivery of cement in bags on pallets with pomoschyu Electric.
12. Safety in the organization of the transport process
Safety - a system of organizational measures and technical means to prevent exposure of employees to hazardous working environments.
Of all modes of transport is the most dangerous road transport. The analysis shows that 70% of victims injured during transport of goods, including 30% - when loading and unloading. The largest number of victims unable to work for 8-25 days, every tenth of them are in need of long-term treatment. Therefore, you must carefully examine the accident prevention regulations, causes of injury, to take preventive measures, to examine any appropriate literature associated with the safety of dangerous goods.
The carriage of goods must be observed all applicable traffic laws.
When loading and unloading and operation of lifting mechanisms should be guided by the requirements of GOST 12.3.002-75, GOST 12.3.009-76, Rules of construction and safe operation of cranes, the Rules on occupational safety in road transport.
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A short guide NIIAT car. 10th ed., Rev. and Sub-M: Transkonsalding, 1994. 770 p.
Transport and process of delivery
Delivery of packaged cargoes - cement in bags Name edenitsyUniversalny cargo pallet double-threaded multi-turn plossky
Nominal weight, gross t1,25Gabaritnye sizes mm1240h840h1350Nachalo gruzopotokaTsementny zavodKonets gruzopotokaPredpriyatiya, warehouses, construction sites
Name operatsiiOboznachenieKol of operations in freight transport and technological protsesseProdolzhitelnost process, min.Kolichestvo people employed in protsesseTrudoёmkost process чел.-мин.Ручн.Механ.Всего.Ручн.Механ.Всего.Ручн.Механ.Всего.Ручн.Механ.Всего.Контрольно-учётная2-22-22-24-4Грузо-вая
-33-0,90,9-1117,0411,228,24Пере-мещение-55-1,061,06-11-24,4824,48Вспо-могательная4372,680,73,38Он zheOn same
1On the same
18,049,2817,32Tran-sport-nai-22 ---- --- He also zheOn Warehouse-lic
1. The serial number and name-operatsii123456Kontrolno Account
ВспомогательнаяПеремещениеВспомогательнаяГрузоваяПеремещение 2. Designation
3. The content of work in operatsiiOformlenie documents, inspection meshkovOtkryvanie side, tilting canopy and installing electric trapaPeremeschenie to shtabelyamVvedenie fork openings in poddonaPodёm poddonaPeremeschenie Electric in body avtomobilyaSposob execution oborudovanieVruchnuyu Manual mechanized
elektropogruzchikKolichestvo operations, the duration of a single operation, min. 1/13 / 0.6716 / 0.2316 / 0.2016 / 0.2016 / 0,30Professiya, number rabochihUchёtchik, shofёrShofёr Driver e / e pogruzchikaVoditel / pogruzchikaVoditel e / e pogruzchikaVoditel / pogruzchikaTrudoёmkost, people-min. 2,02,013,683,23,24,8
Lowering and pallet installation on avtomobilPeregruzka bags from the stack on the e-mail. loaders th. in the car
Moving truck from avtomobilyaZakryvanie board, cleaning ladder zastёgivanie canopy Shipping gruzopoluchatelyuOformlenie dokumentovOtkryvanie board, setting the ladder, rasstёgivanie canopy Introduction fork openings in poddonaMehanich.
Vuchnuyu mechanized. E. pogr.V ruchnuyuMehanich.
vizualnoVruchnuyuMehanich. E / pogruzchik16 / 0.25284 / 0.316 / 0.303 / 0.671 / -1 / 1.03 / 0.6716 / 0,23Voditel e / e pogruzchikagruzchikiVoditel / pogruzchikaShofёrShofёrUchёtchik
shofёrShofёrVoditel e / pogruzchika485,24,82,01-2,02,013,68
Moving el.pogruzchika in avtomobilZagruzka meshkamiPeremeschenie pan el. / Lift Truck
ka to skladamOpuskanie and pallet installation on skladeVydviganie fork e. / loader from poddonaZakryvanie board, cleaning ladder zastёgivanie pologaPeremeschenie car on CEM. zavodMehan.
E. / PogruzchikVruchnuyu fur.
E. / PogruzchikMehan.
E. / PogruzchikMehaniz.VruchnuyuMehanich.
Onboard avtomobil16 / 0.3284 / 0.316 / 0.416 / 0.2516 / 0.153 / 0.671 / -Voditel el.pogruzchikaGruzchiki driver el.pogruzchikaVoditel el.pogruzchikaVoditel el.pogruzchikaShofёrShofёr4,885,26,442,4
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