трусики женские украина

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 Range of fur products - Commodity

Table Of Contents:

1. Introduction.

2. The range of fur products.

2.1 Consumer properties of fur products.

3. Production.

3.1 Structure of fur raw materials.

3.2 Biological basis of the sort of fur raw materials and semi-finished products.

3.3 The basic processes of manufacture of fur semi.

3.4 Principles sort of fur and fur semi.

4. Classification.

5. Pictures.

6. Marking.

7. Requirements for the quality of fur products.

8. Features of storage.

9. The main defects of fur pelts tanned.

10. List of used literature.

1.Vvedenie.Mehovye products - it's fur and sheepskin Fur raw, tanned skins, fur and sheepskin-skin coat products.

In furskins include raw furs, fur raw materials and non-curried skins of sea animals; in fur products - pelts tanned winter-spring furs, fur pelts and tanned skins of sea animals; in fur and sheepskin-skin coat products - fur and sheepskin clothes Fur, fur hats, collars, fur plate, hide, fur hats for women (boas, capes), mittens, gloves, and other fur products.

Commodity studies the factors that determine the quality of the goods, the quality of goods, develops methods for measuring properties and assess the level of quality of goods, determine the conditions and methods of preserving product quality during transportation, storage, operation, explores the reasons for their physical and moral deterioration.

At higher quality, such as product longevity increases, reducing the number of devices needed to satisfy them.

Quality is not only technical, but also social category. Evaluation of the quality depends on the intrinsic properties of the goods and the level of public demand for these properties, the conditions of use. An important factor in determining the quality is the level of public spending on the production of goods.

In modern conditions the starting point for the formation of the range, quality and quantity of produced goods planning was to meet the ever changing needs of the people. Therefore, the analysis of commodities from individual consumer characteristics of goods passes to the assessment and measurement of the quality of goods in terms of the degree of satisfaction of the relevant requirements. Commodity actively involved in solving the problems of quality management at all stages of the product life cycle - design, production, circulation and consumption. Particular attention is paid to the development of rational conditions of storage, transportation and use of goods, rules of care. Changes merchandising approach to the study of the range of goods: the fore the problem of developing an optimal destination and complex products, forecasting range.

In Russia, there are more than 100 species of fur-bearing animals, and animals. To maintain and enhance livestock, fur animals and increase blanks fur raw materials in our country, is acclimatized valuable fur-bearing animals (muskrat, nutria, American mink, Raccoon), a system of protected areas, nature reserves, fur farms, karakul farms. Work continues on the development and cultivation conditions in the cell Kamchatka red fox, "wild" French mink, Raccoon, raccoon dogs, ferrets, muskrats.

In Russia, a modern well-equipped technically fur industry. The largest of its enterprises are located in Moscow, Leningrad, Kharkov, Kazan, Riga, Vilnius, Tallinn, Kirov, Alma-Ata and Baku.

Our country exports protein, astrakhan, sable, marten, mink, muskrat, fox, fox and other valuable species of fur semi.

2. The range of fur products

Range called the selection of goods, united on any grounds. The main products is scientifically based classification system. Distinguish between industrial and commercial range.

Industrial range is a range of products produced by enterprises, associations or industry. Naturally, the industry's product range is wider than the association, and production association wider than a single enterprise.

Trading range - range of goods that are in circulation in the wholesale and retail trade. He kind of industry, since it includes and imported goods. Trading range is divided into range of commodity groups and a range of commercial enterprise. The range of product group is a list of items included in one of the 19 commodity groups. It can be formed from the products of various industries (clothing items, glassware, etc.).

In trade secrete products of simple and complex assortment. Products vary in the range of simple small number of features, such as exercise books, pencils and ink. Complex range of goods classified by purpose, materials, methods of production, design, size, decor and other features. These include clothing, footwear, textiles, glass and ceramic products, etc.. It is obvious that the range of commodity groups such goods is more diverse.

Range of commercial enterprises (bases, warehouses, shops) is determined by the type of enterprise. Niche businesses sell goods one product group (eg, clothing), subgroups (costumes), or even individual species (ties). But the relevant goods are presented to them in full nomenclature. The range of universal goods stores include various groups of goods - clothes, shoes, fabrics, haberdashery, perfumes and other cosmetics.

In recent years, trade goes on the formation and implementation of the range of goods complexes, such as "products for the home", "household goods".

The range is characterized by several features: structure, breadth, depth, completeness and degree of renewability interchangeability of items of destination economy.

Under the structure of assortment understand the proportion of commodity groups, subgroups, species and varieties of goods turnover. This ratio should be scientifically justified, based on the data and study needs of customer demand, taking into account practical experience. Thus, the range of shoes requires a certain structure size (Rostovka), which is developed on the basis of measurements of the mass of the population feet. When the proportion of the shoe size does not meet the demand of the population of the area, then the shoes of the same size is not enough, and the shoes will be a different size in excess.

The breadth of the range defined by the number of subgroups and types of products of a particular purpose, and depth - the number of varieties within a species. Expansion of the range is only appropriate to the optimum level.

Under the fullness of the range is the ratio of the actual number of varieties of goods to the number of varieties of goods, provided the price list (to the contract specifications).

Updated product range is characterized by a specific weight (in percent) of new products in total output and must ensure the fullest satisfaction of existing and new needs.

Interchangeability of products, their efficiency in production and operation are also important in the evaluation of the range.

Needs of the population grow, differentiate, deepened with the development of society, increasing material and cultural level of the people.

Products manufactured and sold commercially trade in its scope and structure should match the structure of social needs which manifest themselves in customer demand, otherwise the goods turn into a useless product. Therefore, the most important task of constructing the range - the most complete satisfaction of the constantly growing needs of the population.

Purposeful structure range enhances the effectiveness of social production, economical use of labor and material costs. If the range does not match the demand, forming reserves "slow moving" products, which account for utsenyat, causing substantial material damage.

Assortment should help to overcome the differences between town and country, leveling the levels of development of individual republics and regions of the country and certain social groups, education of the population of artistic taste. Necessary "to actively influence the formation of the reasonable needs and aesthetic tastes of the population."

Range of fur semi comprises the following main groups: semi-finished fur, fur, karakulesmushkovy, sheepskin fur and skins of sea animals.

Fur semi-finished product as raw furskins, divided by the time production (slaughter) of animals during the winter and spring types. Main place in the range occupied by winter furs. Skins are classified (sorted) into groups of logs, grades, sizes, colors, nullity finish.

On ridges divide only those kinds of semi-finished products, which are found in different geographic regions and are markedly different in size and weight of the skins, the thickness of the leather, as well as trademarks properties of hair (pomp, height, and density of color and silky). On ridges divide sable skins (Barguzinsky, Kamchatka, Amur, Yakutsk, Minusinsk, Altai, Yenisei, Tobolsk), proteins, mink, red fox, white fox, groundhog, tarbagan, marten and others.

Division skins size applies only to those species in which the pronounced dependence of the sign from the floor (ermine, columns) and the age of the animal. By the size of the skins are divided into large, medium and small; some introduced an additional category - especially large.

Sort fur semi depends on the degree of hair that due to the time of production of the beast. In determining the grade semi consider the following product characteristics: opulence, density, height, softness of hair. The number of varieties for different types of fur is different (two to four)

Division of certain types of furs by color caused considerable individual variability natural color of their hair. Divided by color mink, sable, marten, silver-black foxes, squirrels, otters and others.

Group of defects is determined by the presence of semi-finished and size of defects of hair and leather fabric. The latter is ranked as shitost remaining after cutting and removal of gross defects. Within each class divided into four groups of skin imperfection: normal, small, medium and large (or I, II, III, IV).

By the nature of finishes distinguish skins cropped, dyed (okunochnym, aerogrfnym ways stencil et al.), As well as tweaking, epilate and others.

Fur products, like fur raw materials are divided into winter and spring types. Important features of its sort is also the size, color, grade, group of defects.

Karakulesmushkovy cake mix - a tanned skins of lambs of different breeds of sheep (karakul Ukrainian sheepskin, fat-tailed and other species of coarse wool) with a characteristic curl. This includes semi-finished astrakhan, astrakhan, lambskin and others.

Astrakhan cake mix: the skins of lambs uterine development (miscarriages) - beggar, broadtail, doodle-broadtail (expression curl gradually increased from the first to the last species); skins of lambs aged 1 to 3 days - scrawl; under the age of one month - yahobab.

Karakul - the main form of semi-finished in the group. It is divided into thoroughbred and half-breed with astrakhan-rough, and maloshelkovistym sloboblestyaschim curls. Ceteris paribus quality hair astrakhan determined by the types of curls that have the following names: Valya (closed long curls), beans covered short), Grivko (with divergent midline on both sides of hair), ring, peas (very small ring) , lasy (smooth hair without curls). Valek, Bob and Grivko - the most valuable curls. Yahobab - skins with overgrown high loose curls (beans, rings).

Astrakhan - skin lambs aged 1 - 4 days from sheepskin sheep breeds bred in the Ukraine. Curl looser than the astrakhan, different types.

Lambskin - skins of lambs grubosherstnyh northern and steppe (fat-tailed) breeds of sheep, under the age of 30 days. Curl elastic and shapeless.

Karakulesmushkovy prefabricated divided by grades, color, groups of defects.

Sort semi determined by the state of hair skin (type, size, and location of crimps per pelt, density, luster hair). These indicators karakulesmushkovogo semi unlike fur dramatically change with age of the animal, especially in the early days of his life. Number of varieties and their designation for various kinds of semi karakulesmushkovogo different. For example, for astrakhan - three classes (1,2 and 3); for black astrakhan 29 grades (grades), denoted by one - three letters (P - choice, PP - Moscow jacket, jacket E I, etc.).

The color of karakul purebred divided into black, gray (light gray, gray, dark gray, black and gray) and color. Last divided into light and dark brown, brown, Sur (silver and golden color with an uneven distribution of pigment in sable hair), guligaz (a combination of white hair with brown), white, and others. Lambskin is gray, dark gray, brown; lambskin - black, brown, white.

Sheepskin and fur products is tanned hides fine-wool, and polutonkorunnyh polugrubosherstny breeds of sheep. Is produced in the form of a short-haired unpainted or, more commonly, painted (okunochnym, aerografnym, screen or backup method). Dyed skins can be ordinary or special handling. In some cases, by applying obglazhivayut curls (embossing tiles) under scrawl or broadtail. On quality Sheepskin divided into the 1st and 2nd grade; within each class - in five groups defect - I, II, III, IV, V.

Fur skins of marine animals - a fur seal skins and some species of seals.

Fur seal skins taken from animals 2-4 years, provide the most valuable semi-finished product with a tall, silky, thick and smooth down natural brown color and coarse guard hairs dark gray, which is sometimes removed (plucked skins). Feather cover can be painted on top of black or dark brown. Often they are neschipanymi natural coloring. Seal pelts are divided into the quality of 1.2 and 3rd grade and four kinds of defects.

In sealskin hair changes dramatically depending on the age of the animal. At born seal (Belka) he dense, soft and shiny, white to cream-color. Seal over the age of 15 days (hohlushka) changes hair more rare, rough and short. The skins of the adult seals (seals) are covered even more rare rough scalp without the fluff, mostly dark gray color. Use them for sewing jackets, hats.

The range includes fur animals: muskrat, nutria, mink, Raccoon, Kamchatka red fox, wild French mink, raccoon dogs, ferrets, squirrels, astrakhan sable, marten, fox.

Fur semifinished divided into 16 product groups:

 Winter

 1. otter otter, sea otter, mink.

 2. Beaver Beaver River, nutria.

 3. Cunha sable, marten soft, Highland marten, marten.

 4. Khor'kova Polecat dark, light polecat, polecat, columns, Solongo, stoat, weasel.

 5. Fox fox, Korsak, foxes, jackals, wolves, Raccoon.

 6. Ussuri raccoon raccoons.

 7. Cat Wild cats, lynx, leopard, tiger.

 8. Rosomahovye Wolverine.

 9. Barsukov Badger.

 10. White Bear Bear, Bear Forest.

 11. Hare hare, hare.

 12. Squirrel Squirrel, flying squirrel.

 13. muskrat Muskrat, muskrat.

 Spring

 14. Marmot Surkov, tarbagan, gophers.

 15. Small rodents squirrels, water rat, barn rat, hamster, Zokor, mole rats, sleepyhead-polchёk, jerboa

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