In 19991g. there was a change in the historical destiny of the peoples of Kazakhstan. The country has set its sights on building a new independent sovereign state based on the principles of unity of the people, social justice and the consolidation of all forces of society in the way of market-based economic reforms. It was a bold, in fact, a revolutionary step that has no alternatives on the basis of the socialist administrative-command management - to build a new system of management, adequate market economy.
The current stage of socio-economic development determines the need for restructuring of the economy, particularly in the direction of the accelerated development of entrepreneurship. Enterprise development is primarily the emergence of a new class of people-oriented independent, proactive activities aimed at making a profit.
Millions of entrepreneurs around the world are showing commitment to creating their own business. This creative process is the life force of a strong private sector, ensuring the well-being of the nation.
Experience shows that the states supporting entrepreneurs have achieved success and prosperity, while the economic situation of the countries in which the way of private enterprise put obstacles, only worse.
Even in countries where previously private business is not encouraged or prohibited, preferring the state economy is now growing awareness of the importance of encouraging private enterprise.
Society is becoming more aware that entrepreneurship is one of the key conditions of market mechanisms and an integral part of a modern market economy. This value of the business is due to a wide range of economic and social functions entrusted to him: the creation of new jobs, filling markets in goods and services, creating a competitive environment, the formation of the middle class in the society.
Small businesses are common, mainly where to start their own business does not require significant initial investment. Also, in comparison with the large-scale production is relatively small risk of financial and other losses associated with instability and changes in the market environment due to the greater management flexibility and better forecasting capabilities of the market.
Governments play a crucial role in creating the conditions for entrepreneurs, paving the way to prosperity: they have adopted policies and create programs to support entrepreneurship.
Since 1997, Kazakhstan has significantly intensified government support for small business. The Decree of President of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On Business Partnerships", "On production cooperative", "On additional measures to strengthen public support and enhance the development of small business", "On Limited and Additional Liability", etc.
simplified procedure for registration of small businesses, introduced model statutes, and registration fees are reduced by 4 times;
simplified procedure for certification of products for small businesses;
introduced incentives for registration of real estate and land rights;
reduced the number of controlling and inspecting public authorities and paid services provided by them;
in tenders for the transfer of small businesses engaged in production activities, unused land and land, as well as construction in progress;
introduced a system of simplified accounting for small businesses;
Resolution of the National Bank of the Republic of Kazakhstan set the amount of mandatory small business lending by banks - 10% of their loan portfolio. In this technical lending practices developed by the banks themselves and on the basis of a common economic policy.
All of this was the growth and development of small business in Kazakhstan. As of 1 January 1998, the country registered 112.5 thousand. Small business, the amount of current is 52.2 thousand. Units. There is a growing number of small entrepreneurs to present their 195.5 thousand. The total number of employees in the sector of small business increased to 913.6 thousand. People, accounting for 20% of total employment, of which 467.5 thousand. People - individual business and farms.
Since 1998, the Government of Kazakhstan has begun to implement the Strategy of development of Kazakhstan for 1998 - 2000, in which small business is one of the priorities.
Identified the following priorities:
Coordination of state, public and donor organizations;
Formation of an effective system of credit;
Development of infrastructure to support small businesses.
Originating in the Republic of Kazakhstan fundamental political, social and economic changes have made significant changes in the accounting system. Accounting, formed under central control and rigid planning, proved unacceptable to a market economy. Implementing the program of privatization, reorganization of state enterprises, the creation of an appropriate economic and legal infrastructure for the successful functioning of new business entities, access to financial markets, foreign investment and other changes demanded reform of accounting.
Increasing the level of economic development, financial system, production, socio-economic conditions create new user problem. The low level of accounting can create numerous contradictions, restraining economic progress. Remains relevant maxim American scientist G. Emerson: "People have long understood the need to consider, but is not yet fully understand how and what to take into consideration."
In the accounting system is extensive range of problems. Therefore, this paper outlines the defined boundaries of research, which has sunk to the issues of organization of accounting systems, and the relationship of these issues with the activities of the subjects. Selection of boundaries is not accidental, since these issues are important, their decision to contribute to the further development of the market economy.
In order to improve the state policy in the field of business support and development, strengthening the rule of law in the activities of public authorities responsible for supervising and controlling functions, actively worked on the removal of unnecessary administrative barriers that protect the rights and interests of private enterprise. Adopted a number of resolutions of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan, regulating the procedure for conducting inspections of private enterprise from state regulatory agencies, developed rules on the appointment of registration of business inspections by state authorities introduced a unified statistical records of all inspections of businesses.
The transition to a market economy, the economic and financial independence, private property is largely determined by the existing consumer need for and use of accurate, current, relevant information.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. General 6Pribyl, its economic content, views
and determination methods. 6Rentabelnost and factors influencing the increase
its level. 10
1.3.Oganizatsiya financing and lending. 16
1.4. Tax policy. 24
2. The calculation part 30
2.1. Feasibility study 30
2.2. The calculation of the cost of parts for manufacturing
chandeliers Chizhevskogo 30
2.3. Calculation of wage costs 31
2.4. Calculation of electricity costs 31
2.5. Calculation of the total cost of production of chandeliers
2.6. Calculation of annual efficiency chandeliers
Chizhevskogo 32Zaklyuchenie 33 List of literature used 42 1. General
1.1 Profit, its economic content, types and methods of determination.
Industrial production process is based on the interaction of three main elements: fixed capital, working capital and labor. The use of the means of production workers in material sphere provides industrial output. Comparison of the final results of operations of an industrial enterprise (effect) to the cost of labor and materials for his achievement reflects the efficiency of industrial production.
Effect, or the end result, economic activity is characterized by a variety of cost and natural indicators, such as the volume of production, profits, savings on individual cost elements, the total savings from the reduction of production costs.
All costs associated with the achievement of the effect, divided into current and non-recurring. Ongoing costs include payment of living labor, the cost of consumption of material resources, depreciation, cost of maintaining the fixed capital in working condition (repair costs) and other costs included in the total cost of industrial products. Non-recurring costs - those costs be advanced for the expanded reproduction of capital.
The level of production efficiency set by a system of private and common indicators. For private indicators include labor productivity, capital intensity (capital intensity), material consumption of products and so on. D.
Labor productivity measured as the ratio of the cost of production of industrial products of the following year to the cost of production in the previous year. Productivity growth will occur when this ratio exceeds unity.
Materials output - is the cost of material costs, attributed to the cost or value of gross output.
Capital intensity of production - is the cost of equity capital attributable to one ten. value of gross output. Specific capital intensity of production - the cost of capital per unit of industrial production.
Common indicators include revenue and profitability.
Profit - the final financial result of entrepreneurial activity. In conditions of market relations - is a converted form of surplus value. Accounting profit allows us to establish how effectively economic activity is conducted.
In its economic nature profit acts as part of the cost (price) of the surplus product created for the community labor workers in material production. Sources of surplus product is surplus labor. Marx, describing the general laws of development of society, wrote that in any social production "can always be made between the part of labor, the product of which is included in individual consumption direct producers and their families, and ... the other part of the labor, which there is always a surplus labor, the product which always serves to satisfy the needs of the general public, no matter how distributed the surplus product and whoever functioned as a representative of these social needs. "*
In forming the profit takes into account all aspects of economic activity of industrial enterprise: the level of capital resources, machinery, equipment, technology, organization of production and labor. The absolute value of profits reflects the results of cost reduction and growth in sales.
Sales of products is one of the indicators of planning, evaluation of economic activities of an industrial enterprise and a major source of income and budget. Funds transferred to the account of the company for the products sold are called revenue from reyizatsii. Of the proceeds from the sale of company products are reimbursed on production costs expended wealth, formed a sinking fund in accordance with the norms of depreciation. The remaining part of - net production, or gross income. If we exclude from net income wages subject to social insurance contributions, as well as value added tax and excise duties, it is possible to determine the profits of the enterprise. Profits from the sale of marketable products is the main form of accumulation of industrial enterprise.
Example. We define the target profit from the sale of marketable products at wholesale prices businesses using the data in Table. 19. The sales volume can be calculated using the following formula:
RP = Q H + TP - Qk,
where pn volume of sales in the wholesale prices of the enterprise;
Qn, Qk- remnants of commercial products, respectively at the beginning and end of the year in the wholesale prices of the enterprise;
TP volume of commodity output in the planning period in the wholesale prices of the enterprise.
Industrial enterprises mainly sell their products at wholesale prices businesses. All profits from the sale comes at their disposal. With sales of marketable products at wholesale prices industry enterprises of the profits made by the state budget in the form of value added tax and excise tax (a kind of indirect tax on goods mainly mass consumption). Value added tax is defined as the product of the wholesale price minus the cost of material inputs ua rate of tax, excise duties - as the product of the value of gross output in the rate of excise duty.
Results of operations and are measured at book (sheathe) and net profit.
The balance sheet profit includes in addition to the profits from the sale of profit subsidiary and service industries, are not directly related to the main productive activity of the industrial enterprise, profit from participations in joint ventures, property leasing, various dividends and gains and losses from other business transactions ( for example, receipt of bad debts, penalties, fines, penalties paid or received in connection with violation of commercial contracts). In the total amount of non-operating losses include losses from the liquidation of not fully depreciated capital. In the balance sheet profit also takes into account the benefits of income tax.
In the balance of industrial enterprise stands gross and net profit.
Gross margin - the difference between revenues and expenses before taxes. Gross profit takes into account the proceeds from the sale of fixed assets and other property of an industrial enterprise. Proceeds from sale of property is determined as the difference between its resale value Tsli residual value U0, adjusted for inflation Kinf. For example, if the liquidation value of CL = 450 thousand. Ten., Residual value of U0 = 150 thousand. Ten. and Kinf. = 1.8 gross profit increases: Pval. = (Tsl- U0,) Kinf. = 450 - 150 - 1.8 = 180 thousand. Ten.
Net income - this is part of the profit that remains at the disposal of the company after payment of statutory taxes. Net profit of industrial enterprises rasschitynaetsya by the formula:
PP = VP - (NAP + VAT + + Him NACC) - K
where VP - gross profit;
Npr- income tax, established on the basis of the adjusted book profit on the income tax rate. The balance sheet profit - gross profit is reduced by the amount of benefits for income allocations to the reserve fund (dividends) and income on shares;
VAT, respectively Nakts- value added tax and
Nim- property tax;
K - interest on bank loans.
The net profit of the company used on its own economic purposes. The total amount of net income and its distribution is approved by the board of the company.
Gross profit is distributed in two areas: the main part of the budget will be deducted, the remaining part is used now to meet their own needs, provided financial plan.
The priority payments in the budget include:
income tax in accordance with the Law "On taxes on profits of enterprises and organizations";
value added tax (product cost of material resources and the tax rate);
Profit remaining at the disposal of the enterprise, distributed:
On the insurance reserve or reserve fund in case of unforeseen ormiruemy failures in the production process:
fund razvishl production, which nklyuchasg sinking fund and the net profit (advancing efforts to increase reconstruction and improvement of production, purchase new equipment, the introduction of advanced technology);
Social Development Fund in the production (construction and repair of buildings and facilities owned by the enterprises, child care, clinics, facilities for cultural, educational and medical supplies, etc.);
a material incentive fund (stimulation of employees);
Interest on bank krelita which are deducted from the profit to repay loans from banks, now received a temporary lack of replenishment of working capital, implementation of measures for the development and production of new products, etc.
1.2 Profitability and factors influencing the increase in its level.
To evaluate the effectiveness of the industrial enterprise not only uses earnings. For example, two companies receive the same income, but have different costs of production assets, ie the amount of fixed capital and working capital. Work more effectively the enterprise, which cost less productive assets. Thus, to evaluate the performance of the enterprise is necessary to compare the profit and production assets in which it was created. This is profitability.
Profitability - yield, profitability of the enterprise; indicator of economic efficiency of industrial enterprises, which reflects the results of economic activity. It is calculated as the ratio of the balance sheet profit of R to the average annual value of fixed capital and rated current assets (OK + OS). There are two types of profitability: profitability, calculated on the basis of net profit.
When setting prices for industrial products can be used profitability of individual products, which is calculated as the ratio of profit to cost.
Profitability index correlated with all the performance indicators of production, especially with the cost of production and the rate of production fondo¸mkostyu oborachevoemosti working capital.
The magnitude of profitability, calculated on the balance sheet profit, influenced by three main factors: the increase in profit, the level of fixed capital and working capital normeruemyh. Consider in more detail the effect of each factor.
Profit may increase as a result of increased volume of production, increasing the share of products with higher profitability, cost reduction, growth in wholesale prices, while improving the quality of wholesale prices, while increasing product quality. Increase in profits by increasing the production volume can be calculated using the following formula:
PQ = (VPpl- TBF) / ?pr. = (1500 - 1200) 0, 12 = 36 thousand. Ten.,
where VPpli VPb- planned accordingly and the base value of gross output production in the wholesale prices of the enterprise;
?pr- profit share in the value of gross output in the base period.
The range of products has a direct impact on profits. When you change the structure of the range in the direction of increasing the share of products with higher margins provided additional profit growth:
Na = [(VPpl.?pl.- VPb?b) (Rb- Rav)] / 100 = 4, 05 thousand. Ten. .
where ?pl, ?b- planned and the share of basic products, the profitability of which is higher than the average for the enterprise;
Rb, Rsr- increased and the average profitability of products as a percentage.
If as a result of structural changes increased the proportion of several highly profitable products, the overall increase in profit is defined as the sum of profit growth for each product:
Na = PA1 PA2 + ... + Pai,
where a1, a2, ... ai- products with higher profitability.
Among the factors influencing the increase in profits, the leading role belongs to reduce the cost of production. The choice of ways to reduce the current izderzhok production is based on the analysis of the cost structure. For material-industries most characteristic is saving material resources for labor-intensive - labor productivity growth for asset-intensive - improving the use of fixed capital for energy - saving fuel and electricity.
In a formalized way increase profits by reducing the cost of production can be expressed:
Ps = SbVPpl / VPb- CPF =
= 1056 - 1500/1200 - 13 = 15, 5 thousand. Ten.,
where Sa, CPF, - the cost of production in the base and the planning period.
At production of high quality current costs often increase. However, the sale of these products at higher prices and profits may increase:
Pc = [VPpl?pl (Rq + Rq- Rpl)] / 100 =
= [1500 - 0.1 (15 + 5 - 12)] / 100 = 12 thousand. Ten.,
where nk increase in profits as a result of growth in wholesale prices due
for improving the quality of products;
?pl- share of products of high quality,%;
Rq- profitability of production of high quality,
equal to 15%;
Rq- increase product profitability increased chamber
-operation, equal to 5%;
Rpl- average profitability of 12%.
Example. Baseline data for quantification of profit growth are shown in Table. 20.
Obshy profit growth is calculated as the sum of profit growth for each factor (see. Table. 20):
P = PQ + Pa + Pc + Ps =
= 36.0 + 5.0 + 4.05 + 12.0 = 57.05 thousand. Ten.
Next, the level of profitability in the planning year. For this example, the level of profitability is:
The data for the calculation of profit growth, thousand. Ten.
RH = [(n + n) / (Oksr.g. + OS] = 100%
= [(144 + 57.05) / (600 + 300)] 100% = 22.33%.
Thus, the increase in profitability is: R = Rn- RCT = 22.33 - 16 = 6.33%.
Profitability is the indicator of the use of capital, so its level is greatly affected by the cost of capital and the level of its use. The decrease in the average cost of capital provides increasing profitability by increasing the specific profit attributable to I ten. fixed capital formation and reduction of depreciation per unit of production.
On derecognition of surplus equipment increase profitability can be defined by the formula:
Rsp = (PbOKsp) / [OKB (OKb- OKsp)] 100,
where Pb- profit in the base period;
OKsp- reducing the cost of capital due to the write-off of surplus equipment;
OKb- average annual value of fixed capital and working capital in the base year.
Suppose that in the planning period cost of capital was written off 100 million. Ten., Then
Rsp = (144 - 100) / [900 (900 - 100)] 2 = 100%.
Increase in profitability as a result of the reduction of depreciation is calculated as follows:
Ra = OkspNa / (OKsr.g.- Ossr.g.)
For where the rate of depreciation.
Assume that at = 0.08, then
Ra = 100 - 0.08 / (900 - 100) = 1.0%.
The total increase profitability by reducing the average annual value of fixed assets and working capital is defined as the sum of the growth factors by:
Rok = Rsp + Ra.
Increase in profitability as a result of improved working capital can be calculated:
Ros = PbOSn / [FB (FB-DOS)]
where OSn- cost reduction of normalized working capital:
DOS = OSb- CPF
CPF = (OSbChb) / Cpl,
where RSD, respectively OSpl- basic and routine standardized average annual cost of working capital;
CH6, Chpl- number of revolutions of the working capital in the baseline and the planning period.
Assume that the number of revolutions Chplvozroslo from two to three, then
OCH = 300 - [(300 - 2) / 3] = 100.
Ros = [Pb (OKpl + 0Cpl- CPF) - Pb (OKB OCpl +)] = 100 [144 (600 + 300 - 100) - 144 (600 + 300)] 100 = (0.18 - 0.16) 2 = 100%.
When calculating the net profit margin, additional factors influencing growth in profitability due to a decrease in the value of tax srl.
Analysis of outcome indicators of economic activity of an industrial enterprise allows to establish the causes of such changes general indicators, profit and profitability, depending on changes in profit per unit of products sold, sales volumes, the average annual value of fixed assets and working capital normeruemyh, tax policy, etc.
In the general form of net income can be calculated by the formula:
SRN = ? (Tsi- Ci) Qi- [? (PRbiQi) Hpr + ? (Tsi- MZi) QiNDS]
where Tsi- wholesale unit price of the i-th product range, ten .;
Ci- full unit cost of the i-th product range, ten .;
Qi- annual i-and the range of products, pcs .;
PRbi- gross profit unit of the i-th product nomenclature
tion, t. e. (Tsi- Ci), Ten .;
Npr- income tax rate, shall be equal to 30%;
m - number of product nomenclature items
(I = 1, 2, 3 ... m);
M3i- material costs per unit of the i-th
the range of products in terms of value, ten .;
VAT - the rate of value added tax, adopted
equal to 15%.
In turn, the net profitability reflects the specific net profit attributable to 1 m. the average annual value of productive assets:
Rch = SRN / PFsr.g,
PFsr.g- where the average annual cost of productive assets, ie. e. the sum of the average annual value of fixed assets OPFsr.gi rated current assets OS.
Factor analysis of indicators of economic activity of an industrial enterprise (tab. 21) shows that the wholesale price of industrial products remained unchanged, as the volume of production: Qpl = Qo = 10 thousand. Pieces. However, the structure of production has changed. Increased demand for the products D and several fell to the products B and C. Due to the fact that in the reporting period, demand was elastic, sales revenue increased by 6.0 million. Ten. and was 66 mln.ten. The total cost of annual production as a result of structural changes in the nomenclature also increased to 52.7 million. Ten., T. E. 4.2 million. Ten.
Compared with the planning period, gross profit increased by 1.8 million. Ten. (PR = VR- spol = 6.0 - 4.2 = 1.8 million. Ten.). Material costs have also increased: MLO = M3o- MZpl = 31.6 - 29.0 = 2.6 million. Ten., And the value added tax - up to 3.99 million. Ten., T. E. In comparison with the plan to 0.54 million. Ten.
(VAT = NDSo- NDSpl = 3.99 - 3.45 = 0.54 million. Ten.). All these changes have a direct impact on net profit, which in the reporting period amounted to 4.15 million. Ten. and increased by 0.75 million. Ten.
There were changes in the cost of production assets. Thus, due to the reduction of losses and growth vnutrismeshshh shift of equipment utilization integral park of the main technological equipment increased from 0.79 to about 85 (Kint = KsmKzt where Ksm- shift coefficient, Kzt- load factor). As a result, improving the utilization of fixed assets decreased their average annual cost to I million. Ten., T. E. To 14 million. Ten. Improvement of working capital by reducing the range of objects of labor supply has reduced the duration of the turnover from 38 to 35 days. The cost of production assets in the reporting period were as follows:
PFD = OPFo + CCA = 14.0 + 5.06 - 19.06 mln.ten.
Net margin in the reporting period reached:
Rch.o = PRch.o / PFD = 4, 15 / 19.06 = 0.217, or 21.7%.
The level of profitability in the reporting period compared with the planned increased by 4.7% (21.7% - 17%) due to:
Ro = SRN / OPFpl = 0.75 / 20.0 = 0.037, or 37%;
improving the utilization of fixed assets and working capital:
Ro = (SRN / PPO) - (SRN / PFpl) = (4.15 / 19.06) - (4.15 / 20.0) = 0.01, or 1%.
Meanwhile, at a given level of profitability calculation does not take into account the increase in profits made as a result of the reduction of depreciation as a result of the cancellation of the company's balance sheet excessive cost of capital (OPF = 1.0 million. Ten.). Savings at the rate of depreciation on = 0.125 was:
Ea = OPF At = 1.0 - 0.125 = 125 thousand. Ten.
Increase in the level of profitability is:
Rs = E / PFD = 0.125 / 0.0065 = 19,6- or 0.7%.
Thus, the total increase in profitability in the reporting period as a result of organizational and technical measures was as follows:
R1o = Ro + Ro = 4.7 + 0.7 = 5.4%
R1o Rpl = + R1o = 17.0 + 5.4 = 22.4%
R1o = Ro + Ro = 21.7 + 0.7 = 22.4%.
In a market economy, increased efficiency of industrial enterprise is inextricably linked to the increasing intensification, which eliminates the possibility of a declarative approach and focus on the real mechanisms of the organization of production.
In an industry with a planned regulation of intensification of production are taken into account the following factors:
growth of labor productivity;
improve the use of capital investments, fixed assets and working capital;
reduction of material production;
improvement of production management.
The first two factors are closely related, as the materialisation of capital investments to improve the park main technological equipment leads to a reduction in machine-capacitance per unit of output and productivity growth.
Labor productivity may also increase as a result of improving the organization and management of industrial production, it does not require significant non-recurring costs. Therefore, the development plan of organizational and technical measures for the intensification of production in the first place should be implemented-internal reserves, and only then move on to the activities related to technical upgrading and expansion of production through the establishment of a progressive structure of the park equipment and flexible technology that allows without significant loss of production perestraivat in order to improve its effectiveness.
In addition to the factors discussed above should be made such as:
technical and economic parameters of business, meeting the requirements of the demand for a commodity market;
supply and demand, taking into account the price elasticity of the goods;
competitiveness of production and products;
resource provision and conditions of sales, and so on. n.
For a market economy characterized by fierce competition, must therefore be set lower limit of profitability, which will ensure the proper functioning of the enterprise. An appropriate level of profitability can be achieved only through clear, economically sound plan that linked the potential of the enterprise (disposable resources and their level of use) ko?yunkturoy market. The application of the proposed approach is due to the fact that market conditions require multivariate ways of solving problems. Selecting the appropriate option or several alternatives may be based on minimizing the error probability that allow you to set the level of profitability required to solve the financial problems of the company and production.
1.3 Organization of financing and credit
Financing industrial enterprise is a system of financial and economic relations that arise in the process of circulation of capital and working capital in the production and treatment, education and the use of monetary income and funds of money resources. It performs the function of providing enterprises with cash resources, cash income distribution, control and stimulation.
The basis for the financing of enterprises is a financial plan that reflects the cash balance of revenues and expenditures and financial results of operations.
The financial plan includes the following sections:
income and income funds (income equals the cash accumulation enterprise, income arising from internal reallocation of funds flow of funds from external sources);
expenses and transfers of (cost to expand production and improve its technology, the cost of cultural and consumer services employees, depreciation, and so on. n.);
credit relationships (relationships with the bank); relations with the budget (the relationship with the state enterprise - payments to the budget).
In carrying out financial plan can be adjusted due to changes in quality and quantity of the production plan.
In drawing up the financial plan working capital annually updated. Growth of working capital is mainly provided by vnutripromyshlennyh sources of profit and stable liabilities (amounts payable periodically generated). In addition, using credit and targeted funding.
To finance the fixed capital loans may be utilized, as well as its own funds. Own source of funding capital investment in the creation and updating of fixed capital is the production development fund. At their own expense, in particular, profits, depreciation and amortization, funded modernization, renovation and expansion of the industrial enterprise (job creation).
Lending industry may be short-term (up to 1 year) and long-term (2 to 5 years). Short-term loan granted for excessive stocks of raw materials for the timely payment of wages and a temporary lack of replenishment of working capital. Short-term bank loan can be obtained on the introduction of new equipment, technology, mechanization and automation of manufacturing processes to produce products of high quality, and so on. D.
Taxes on bank loans are paid from the profits of the enterprise to establish different interest rates for short-term loan.
Long-term bank credit issued for the reconstruction and expansion of existing businesses, building new enterprises subject to reimbursement of expenses within 5 years. Repayment of the loan is made at the expense of profit, depreciation and amortization in the terms established obligations with simultaneous payment of related interest.
Issue of securities to mobilize private funds operating in the enterprise, which can be ispodyonpny to solve production problems.
Financial control over the economic activity of the enterprise on the part of the bank is based on the use of planned cost indicators and covers the production, distribution, circulation and consumption of inventory in monetary terms.
To assess the real cash flow used the information provided in Table. 22 - 25.
After analyzing the data in Table. 25, can be set to change each article of active and passive parts of the balance. For example, fixed assets and other non-current assets in the (t + 2) th year increased by 1.76 times, while their share in comparison with the t-th year has decreased from 90 to 54.4%. Accounts Payable increased almost 40 times, and their share was 7.3% compared with 0.5% in the t-th year.
Financial indicators of industrial enterprises may vary depending on the specific industry, enterprise development goals (investment project) and other factors.
Analysis of the financial condition of the industrial enterprise shows the impact on the placement of the enterprise, state sources of their formation, results of operations and business activities have the following characteristics:
gross and net profit, as well as their specific value, ie. e. the profitability of products and production;
duration and rate of turnover of working capital and inventories, which directly affects the level of profitability;
security investments and financing sources (set their impact on investment programs for capital construction stages).
Financial condition of the company is characterized by its liquidity and financial stability.
Liquidity and solvency of the company reflects estimated using the following indicators:
current ratio - the ratio of current assets to current liabilities (short-term borrowings, including current accounts payable);
the quick or critical liquidity - current assets plus receivables maturing within 12 months, related to short-term liabilities;
absolute liquidity ratio - highly liquid assets (cash and short-term investments), related to short-term obyazatelstvam.Tablitsa 22
The indicators characterizing the flow of real cash flows from investing activities
Line number Indicator Reference * The value of the data
1 2 3 ...
i-th year of liquidation
1 Earth 3
2 Buildings, structures 3
Machinery and equipment, transmission devices 3
Intangible assets 3
Total fixed investment (p. 1 + 2 + 3 + 4) 3
Increase in working capital 3
Total investment (p. 5 + 6) 3
* 3 - The cost of acquisition of assets and the capital increase carried the sign "minus"; P - proceeds from their sales and capital reduction carried with a "plus" .Tablitsa 23
Flow from operating real money (operational) activities
Straw-ki Name Indicator value by year
Feb. 1 ...
Revenue * (p. 1 x p. 2)
5 Variable costs
6 Fixed costs
Depreciation of buildings, structures
9 Interest on loans
Profit before tax **
11 Taxes and fees
12 Projected net income (p. 10 - p. 11)
Depreciation (p. 7 + p. 8)
Net inflow from operations (p. 12 + p. 13)
* When multiproduct manufacturing revenue is determined by the formula: RP = ? TsiQi,
Tsi- where the unit price of the i-th output; Qi- annual i-th set of products; m - number of nomenclature positions.
** For an enterprise that is the subject of investment, profit before tax amounted to: p. 10 = (p. 3 + p. 4) - (p. 5 + p. 6 + p. 7 + p. 8 + p. 9) .Tablitsa 24 real money flow from financing activities
Scores for years
2 ... i-th
Fication of the Con-
Shareholders' equity (stocks, subsidies, etc.).
3 Long-term loans
Repayment of loans
The balance of financial activities * (p. 1 + p. 2 + p. 3) - (p.4)
The payment of dividends p. 6 = (p. I + p. 2 + p. 3) - (p. 4 + p.5) .Tablitsa 25
At the beginning of the t-th year, thousand. Ten.
At the beginning (t + 1) th, thousand. Ten.
At the beginning (t + 2) th, thousand. Ten.
Fixed assets and other 8,324.0 9,369.0 14,652.0
Inventories and expenses 430.0 490.0 5,420.0
Accounts Receivable (debtors) 170.0
Cash 60.0 110.0 240.0
Payments and cash 280.0 360.0 5,134.6
BALANCE 9,264.0 10,559.0 26,932.6
Statutory fund 720.0 840.0 1,510.0
Sources of equity 8,210.0 9,268.0 13,160.0
Long-term borrowings 10.0 31.0 3,104.0
Short-term borrowings 20.0 45.0 100.6
Bank loans for employees 15.0 40.0 110.0
Settlements with creditors, including
obtained for raw materials
Settlements and other liabilities 239.0 255.0 6,968.0
9264.0 10559.0 26932.0
Financial condition of the company is favorable if the following conditions are met: the current ratio should be at least two units, quick ratio - not less than one, the absolute liquidity ratio - in the range of 0.2 to 0.5.
Financial stability of the enterprise is evaluated using the following indicators:
equity ratio - the ratio of equity to total assets (balance sheet) must not exceed 0.5;
leverage ratio - the proportion of debt capital (the sum of long-term and short-term liabilities) in the total value of equity, shall be not less than one;
coefficient of maneuverability - the ratio of working capital (equity minus fixed assets) to equity ratio should not be less than 0.5;
ratio of mobile and mobilization of funds - the ratio of tangible current assets plus cash, short-term capital investments and receivables to non-current assets;
a ratio of current assets - the ratio of working capital as current assets (tangible current assets plus cash, short-term capital investments and receivables), should not be less than zero.
Reduced coefficient values ??lower border characterizes deterioration in the financial condition of the company, their excess of the upper limit of - the presence of excessive stocks.
The financial position of the company is closely linked to measures of financial activity, ie. E. The efficiency of resource use is assessed on the following parameters:
duration of one turnover - the ratio of the number of days in the year to the number of revolutions of working capital;
the number of revolutions of working capital - the ratio of cost (value) of sales to the average balance of current assets;
capital productivity - the ratio of the value of production of the average annual value of fixed assets;
breakeven - the equality of sales revenue and cost of sales;
margin - the ratio of the balance sheet, net income or profits from the sale to the cost of production assets (the sum of fixed assets and the average balance of current assets), ie. e. the share of the variety of profit on 1 spots. production assets.
Analysis of the financial condition of the company enables efficient use of available resources and to fulfill the entire set of features in the course of economic activity in order to:
maximize profitability and increase the protection of business risk;
improve the reliability of current and future projections of financial resources in key areas of business enterprise and taking into account the features of the market economy;
selection of economically feasible sources of funding, and so on. d.
1.4 Tax policy
Tax policy - an integral part of economic policy, which is based on a set of legal
legislation establishing taxes, the procedure for their collection and management.
Taxes appeared with the emergence of the State to which funds are required for the maintenance of the state apparatus, the army, health, culture, and so on. N. "In economic terms, taxes embodied existence of the state." *
Taxes - is required payments, which are the main source of state budget funds and local governments. The essence of the tax shown in the seizure of the gross domestic product (total cost in market prices of final products and rendered services produced in the country) in the form of assessment.
In the economic mechanism taxes perform specific functions: regulating, stimulating, and fiscal distribution.
Regulatory function is aimed at streamlining of market relations and is manifested in the economy in the form of fiscal, monetary and price mechanism. Tax regulation refers to one of the most effective levers market economy and contributes to the smoothing of social contradictions, the implementation of scientific, technical and large-scale production of programs that without government intervention almost could not be implemented.
Enabling function is achieved through a system of incentives and aimed at the introduction of scientific and technological progress, the development of production, the sale of goods abroad, import of capital, and so on. D.
The distribution function is the redistribution of taxes for social equalization of living standards.
Fiscal (budget) feature provides a collection of tools for budgeting financial resources of the state.
It should be subordinated to the monetary policy of the state and provide a certain correspondence between the amount of money in circulation, including bank deposits (money supply), and the rate of growth of gross national product (GNP).
According to the method of establishing taxation can be direct or indirect ^ which makes the possibility of transferring them to the consumer.
Indirect taxes are always occupied in the tax system a higher proportion. The high share of indirect taxes remained in Kazakhstan today. So, at the end of the 90s. of total tax revenues, indirect taxes accounted for nearly 60%, of which the value added tax (VAT) - 23% excise tax - 7, customs duties and road funds - 14, the property tax - 4, local taxes - 3.7 other taxes - about 8%.
From direct taxes, which reached 40%, the largest share of the profit - 75%, or 30% of total incoming taxes'. Income tax on individuals was about 10%.
According to the State Tax Service of the Republic of Kazakhstan, tax arrears (excluding budgetary funds) July 1, 1998 was 375.2 billion. Ten. Tax arrears of the consolidated budget reached 239 billion. Ten., Of which the share of VAT accounts - 68% income tax - 15, excises - 10, other taxes - 7%.
The structure of tax revenues in Kazakhstan differs from the structure of taxes in countries with market economies. For Kazakhstan, the highest percentage (30.6%) are in profit. In industrialized countries, the main source of fiscal revenue is the income tax. It ranges from 23 to 72% of all tax revenues. For corporations, the share of income tax in the range 4 - 21%.
The shape of the current structure of taxes RK close the structure of some European countries. However, the internal structure of direct and indirect taxes is very different. In France, VAT provides 43.5% of all tax revenues, while in Kazakhstan all the tax burden entirely the responsibility of the company. In the US, the structure of direct and indirect taxes differs from the European and aimed at taxing personal income, so the share of direct income exceeds 90%, and VAT no.
Direct taxes, in turn, are divided into real and personal. The actual taxes include taxes on land, fishing and so on. N. For personal taxes include income tax, corporate income tax (tax on income from money capital, resource payments, property tax).
Income tax - the basic form of a direct tax, which is levied on the income or profits of the enterprise, organizations, legal entities and goes to the revenue side of the budget.
Income Taxes - an integral part of the tax system of Kazakhstan. It is set as a percentage (tax rate), is part of the balance sheet profit, and is a source of national income redistribution.
Contributions to the budget as a product PRgbrasschityvayutsya | lribyli taxable problems., NDP tax rate (30%):
PRg.b. = PRobl.Npr,
Problems. = PRbal.- PRlg,
where PRbal.- tax profit, which includes profits from the depreciation of products, and other tangible assets, as well as gain or loss from non-sales activities. In a market economy is a converted form of surplus value, or the difference between income and expenses before income taxes;
PRlg- amount of benefits for income tax based on the contingency fund.
In accordance with the Federal Law "On taxes on profits of enterprises and organizations" dated December 31, 1995 ¹ 227-FZ of taxable income when actually incurred costs and expenses at the expense of profits remaining at the disposal of the company can be increased by reducing the absolute value of the tax on the basis of existing benefits expense. These include benefits allocated for the financing of capital investments in production and housing, as well as the repayment of bank loans received and used for this purpose, including interest on loans. These benefits are granted to industrial enterprises engaged in the development of our own production facilities, as well as the financing of capital investments in production and housing in order equity, including the repayment of loans received and used in this direction, with the full use of accrued depreciation on the last day. For example, if the amount of advances of capital investments for the development of industrial production is 2.0 million. Ten., Transferred value of fixed assets of the finished product (depreciation) for the same period - 0.6 million. Ten., The taxable amount will be reduced to 1.4 million. Ten. (2.0 - 0.6).
Corporate property tax on the balance sheet - a set of fixed assets, intangible assets, inventories and costs. Property tax can not exceed 20% of the value of taxable property.
Depending on the nature of the rates are distinguished: proportional, progressive and regressive taxes.
Flat tax does not depend on the size of income, ie. E. The same rates apply. With a progressive tax payments to the budget increase with income. Regressive rates are reduced as income rises.
Direct taxes are used for the maintenance of the state apparatus, social and cultural activities, the country's defense. In industrialized countries, the share of direct taxes is quite high. In 1987, she was: in the United States - 91.1%, in Japan - 71.2%, in the UK - 54.3%, in Germany - 44.1% *.
Indirect taxes - a tax on goods and services, which are paid in the form of allowances to the price and tariffs. These include: excise, value added tax, customs duties and taxes on securities transactions.
Excise taxes are used mainly for consumer goods and services of private entrepreneurs and organizations. They are included in the price of goods or tariff. The absolute value of the excise tax is set in addition to the free selling price of goods Tsotp .:
Nabs.akts. = Sopt.?akts.,
where ?akts.- excise tax.
According to the method of levying excise taxes are divided into individual and universal.
Individual tax is levied on the value of the gross output of enterprises, and versatile - with a unit cost of the goods. By the time of payment, they are classified as disposable and reusable. Disposable taxes paid once on any production stage, reusable - at each stage of the production cycle.
Value-added tax introduced in Kazakhstan from 1 January 1992, instead of the turnover tax, which in market conditions does not reflect the real value of tax. During the course of the value added tax has changed, ie. E. Decreased with a decrease in the inflation rate from 28 to 20%, and in 1999 - up to 15%, with the exception of the list of goods approved by the Government. In the same year introduced a new tax - a tax on the sale. This tax is in nature similar to VAT, which confirms the international practice. For example, in Canada, a sales tax, which applies to all industrial products manufactured in the country, including import of receipt of goods industry. This tax, like the VAT, valid in other countries and is set at 12%.
European average VAT ranges 12 -
20%. However, it is usually differentiated. For example, in Italy are four rates: normal - 19%, two reduced - 4 and 9%, and increased - 35% on luxury items.
Value added tax is most suitable for the conditions of market relations, and is calculated on the basis of the income derived by an enterprise at all stages of production and circulation. Thus, the VAT is in the budget of the value added created at all stages of production and sale of goods (works, services). In turn, set the rate of VAT in accordance with the legislation in force is applied to the taxable turnover. Therefore, to determine the absolute value of VAT, designed to contribute to the budget of VAT should be obtained from the sale, to eliminate tax paid to suppliers and contractors. In other words, value-added enterprises taxed is the difference between the cost of goods sold and cost of material resources used in the production and sales.
Example. Determine the value of the VAT to its contribution to the state budget, if the cost of goods sold in wholesale prices of the enterprise RP is 1200 thousand. Ten., And the cost of material costs in the cost of this product MH = 750 thousand. Ten.
Value added tax-free, is: DS = 1200 - 750 = 450 thousand. Ten. It included the wages with charges for social insurance, the cost of capital transferred to finished goods (amortization) and profit.
VAT rate for products that sold at free market prices, is 15%.
The absolute value of VAT on the sale at market prices will be: VAT = 450 - 0.15 = 6.75 thousand. Ten.
Another method for determining the VAT based on the amount of VAT calculated on the basis of cost of sales and reduced the amount of VAT paid on material and energy resources with the works and services, the value of which is related to the cost of production.
So, for the realization of the finished product the company is listed on the settlement account of the RP = 1200 thousand. Ten. VAT amounted to 180 thousand. Ten. (1200 - 0.15). The manufacturer has paid to suppliers of material resources 1 12.5 thousand. Ten. (750 - 0.15). Consequently, the budget
directed 67.5 thousand. Ten. (180 - 112.5). Similarly, VAT is calculated at payment products at regulated prices.
It should be noted that the current system of calculation of VAT and income is not economically justified, because it leads to the fact that the competitiveness of many industrial products falls sharply due to high prices compared to similar imported goods. So, Academician LI Abalkin notes that "in all countries through the budget goes to 50% of gross domestic product. And our federal budget can not collect 10%. The problem is that as a result of privatization of common technological chain dissected into individual separate units and each link is screwed VAT and income tax. "*
The mechanism of payments to the budget of the value added tax shown in the figure, which shows how increasing the total amount of tax when moving goods on the link in the chain of industrial production to the final consumer of finished products:
NDSbyud = + VAT 1 NDS2 NDS3 + + + NDS4 NDS5 =
VAT 1 = + ? = NDSi NDSK.
where NDS1- NDSk- value added tax and the first
the last link of the production process; NDSi- increase NDSipo each of the subsequent links of industrial production; n - number of manufacturing units, except for the first link.
NDSi = 20; NDS2 = 30; NDS2 = 30 - 20 = 10; NDS3 = 44;
NDS3 = 44 - 30 = 14, NDSbyud = 20 + 14 = 10 + 44 = 44 = NDS3.
A similar pattern is observed in the payment of income tax.
Tax revenues - is the result of economic activity of fiscal monopolies that have a monopoly on production and trade in certain goods (such as wine and spirits or tobacco). Fiscal duty is established for each type of goods and is in the budget
Analysis of the current system of taxation in the Republic of Kazakhstan and the industrialized countries has shown that used in Kazakhstan system of taxes and benefits does not satisfy the requirements of a market economy.
Firstly, are not economically justified rates that do not stim
liruet inflow of investments in the development of industrial production and contributes to the outflow of capital abroad, material and labor resources, exacerbates the problem of double taxation.
Second, the benefits system covers a very narrow range of issues and does not allow efficient use of capital investments in the active part of the accelerated renewal of fixed capital, carrying out activities for the development and implementation of resources and waste technology and so on. N.
The recommendations on fiscal policy are the following areas:
development and implementation of a new methodological approach in the formation of tax rates and exemptions;
ensure the effective assessment of solvency of the demand and the state of the commodity markets based on supply and demand, including the level of market prices;
establish economically viable production growth rates and the change in the product mix to expand the range of competitive products;
rejection of the economic impact on taxpayers, depending on the form of ownership;
streamlining of public expenditure;
reducing the number of taxes (in 1993 - 45, in 1996 - 287);
increasing the stability of the tax system (in the last five years in the regulatory system of taxation was introduced more than 1,000 changes);
elimination of double taxation;
expansion of the practice of progressive tax rates *.
To change the current system of taxation acts Academician DS Lions. His recommendations are to be exempt from taxes of labor and the elimination of a sphere of material production of value added tax.
2. The estimated portion
2.1. Feasibility study
In the economic part of the calculation is carried out and a comparison of the cost-effectiveness, the creation and use of chandeliers Chizhevskogo.
Chandelier Chizhevskogo always updated and improved. There are new types of chandeliers, which are used in the workplace, in homes, shops, offices, businesses, etc.
The purpose of the chandeliers, is the ionization of air, making it rock (fresh) by otchischeniya air from harmful particles invisible to the human eye.
2.2. The calculation of the cost of parts for the manufacture of chandeliers Chizhevskogo.
These costs are determined by the cost of components, according to the table below.
Number Name Number iches-GUT Price for one product in ten. Stoimostv ten.
1 flyback transformer TVS-110 1400400
2 capacitor to 2 73-9-470 50 100
3 SCR 1250250
Capacity 10mf 1 80 80
5 bridge rectifier KTS405A 1 60 60
6 unipolar transistor KT117 1 95 95
Zener D818G 2 65130
8 ohm resistor MLT2-1.6 30 January 30
9 ohm resistor MLT2-12 2 45 90
Resistor 10 MTT 0.5 kW 10 15 150
Variable resistor 11 SP 1 60 60
Capacity 390pf 10 kV 10 50 500
13 High-voltage diodes KTS106G 10 60 600
14 Ogronichitelnoe resistance 10mOm 1 75 75
Fork 1 15 30 30
Cable 1m 16 20 20
17 Falgirovanny tekstalit 1200200
18 Kabelegon 1120120
19 high-voltage wires 6m 100600
20 copper wire 15m 10150
Needles Stolny 21 100 1100
22 Paraffin 1100100
Ferric Chloride 1l 23 1500 1500
Cm = 4900 tenge
2.3. Calculation of wage costs.
Ref = ((FOB) + Os.s) * T + Rnak RPR +
Fob- basic payroll
Os.s- social contributions
T time spent on design
Rpr- other expenses
Salary of the workers is shown below
Number of months Job Salary Salary Salary for one day a week
Developer 1 20000 833 5760
2 Engineer 15000 625 4375
Will calculate contribution to the national pension fund
NPF1 = 5760 * 0.1 = 576
NPF2 = 4375 * 0.1 = 438
Will calculate the wage fund
F1 = 5760 - 576 = 5184
F2 = 4375 - 438 = 3937
FOB = F1 + F2 = 5184 + 3937 = 9121
Will calculate social security
Os.s FOB = * 21% = 9121 * 0.21 = 1978
Will calculate overhead
Rnak FOB = * 15% = 9121 * 015 = 1368
Will calculate the cost of other expenses
RPR = FOB * 5% = 9121 * 0.05 = 4560
2.4. The calculation of the cost of electric energy.
For the manufacture of chandeliers Chizhevskogo need 20 kW.
The cost of one kilowatt composes - 4.64 Ten.
Se = 20 * 4.64 = 93 tenge
2.5. Calculation of the total cost of production of chandeliers Chizhevskogo.
Will calculate the cost of manufacturing a chandelier.
Sobsch = CM + FOB + Se + Rnak RPR +
Sobsch = 4900 + 9121 + 93 + 1368 + 4560 = 17916 tenge
2.6. Calculation of annual efficiency Chizhevskogo chandeliers.
On the market are many companies offering chandelier Chizhevskogo equal - 25,000 tenge.
The costs for the production of chandeliers Chizhevskogo our project is - 17916 tenge.
The calculation of the market value of chandeliers Chizhevskogo:
a) Full sibestoimost chandeliers - 17916 tenge
b) Accumulation - 30%
Snack = 30% of Sobsch = 5375 tenge
c) the price of one chandelier composes:
C = Sobsch + Snack = 17916 + 5375 = 23290 tenge
We plan to release a year - 50 chandeliers, ie number of chandeliers year = 365 days / 7 days = 50 chandeliers
Then proceeds from the annual calculation of profit will be
SRC = C * 50 chandeliers = 23290 * 50 = 1,164,500 tenge
A yearly sibestoimost is:
GPS = * Sosch 50lyustr = 17916 * 50 = 896,000 tenge
With an annual income composes:
DMPT = frac - GPS = 1164500 - 896,000 = 268,500 tenge
From here the net profit composes:
Chpr DMPT * = 30% = 268,500 * 0.3 = 80500 tenge
Will calculate the net annual profit:
ChPgod = DMPT - Chpr = 268,500 - 80,500 = 187,900 tenge
Percentage of the annual net profit composes:
P = ChPgod / GPA = 187900/896000 = 0.210 * 100% = 21%
As discussed calculation can be concluded that the chandelier Chizhevskogo provided us economically beneficial because demand for it is much larger and much smaller price - 23290 tenge than the price of other manufacturers, which composes - 25,000 tenge. And our chandelier is not inferior in quality and performance to manufacturers of other firms.
Significantly expands the possibilities of action of all factors of production efficiency increase in the formation of market relations. Undergoing restructuring of the economy, the reorientation of its customer; modernization of the most important sectors of the economy - industry, construction, transport and communication of high-tech; catching up on the world's scientific and technical level; thought-out conversion of military production; transition to a mixed economy in which are on an equal footing various forms of ownership; the free development of all collective and private forms of management; financial recovery of the economy; organic inclusion of the country in global economic relations. As a result, formed a controlled, civilized market economy, which will be an effective means of stimulating the growth of labor productivity, improved efficiency of social production, the multiplication of wealth in order to improve people's welfare.
However, things are not so simple. And it is not so easy to fulfill all the tasks set out herein. The reasons may be of a different nature - from the general crisis of consciousness to the ossified heads of enterprises and companies. But we need to move forward and find new ways to improve production efficiency. Without it there is no place in Kazakhstan in the developed countries of the world.