Project management: construction and commissioning of drinking water disinfection - Management Sciences

Russian Federation State Committee for Higher Education

State Academy of Management

Sergo Ordzhonikidze

Department of Innovation Management

By U R C O V O P R O J E C T

on the course: Project Management

on the topic: Project management of construction and commissioning of the system disinfection of drinking water in urban water utilities.

Fulfilled:

Checked: Frolova NA

Moscow 1997 GS About D E F G H A & E I Comprehensive assessment of the company as an organizational form implementation of innovative projects.

1.1 Economic characteristics of the market environment ............................. 3

1.2 Organizational-economic characteristics of the company .................. 5

1.2.1 Activities ............................................. ...................... 5

1.2.2 The property of the company ............................................. ........................ 6

1.2.3 The organizational structure of the company .......................................... 7

1.2.4 Analysis of scientific, technological and innovation potential ............................................................................................ 9

1.3 Economic evaluation of the firm to implement innovative projects ......................................... ........................... 12

1.3.1 Balance of the company ............................................. .............................. 12

1.3.2 Indicators of solvency and financial stability of the company ......................................... .......................... 12

1. 4 The strategy of the firm and its implementation in the selection of projects .................... 14

1.4.1 Portfolio ......... .................................... ..................... 14

1.4.2 Project Selection ............................................. ............................... 16II Development of business - the project plan.

2.1 Definition of the project (summary) ............................................ .......... 25

2.2 Assessment of competition and markets ............................................ ... 27

2.3 Marketing Strategy ............................................... .......................... 28

2.4 Plan for the construction and operation ............................................. .... 30

2.5 Organizational and legal plan ............................................. ..... 31

2.6 Assessment of the economic risk and insurance ................................... 33

2.7 Funding and financial plan. ............................................. 34

........................................................................................... 36III Construction and calculation of the network schedule of the project 37

References ................................................ .............................. 39I Comprehensive assessment of the company as an organizational form implementation of innovative projects.

1.1 Economic characteristics of the market environment.

Among the many branches of modern technology aimed at improving people's living standards, improvement of residential areas and industrial development, water supply and takes great pride of place.

Water supply problems - these are problems of social importance. Enterprises engaged in extraction of water from water sources, its treatment, in terms of tasks and cash flow occupy a leading position in the region. And therefore the efficiency of use of material resources in the industry one way or another affects the general level of well-being and health of people living in the area.

Macroeconomic developments in the Russian Federation had an impact on water supply and sanitation in different directions. Chronic shortage of taxes and budget deficits hinder the provision of government subsidies large, which supports the operation of water supply systems in the past. Shrinking household incomes and industrial production limit level of tariffs that could be set for users. As a result, water utilities - municipal enterprises engaged in the maintenance and operation of water supply systems - do not have sufficient financial resources to ensure an adequate level of content and so the need for reconstruction and repair of the system. Investment in new buildings almost stopped. Financial famine led to persistent deterioration of the quality and reduce the security services. In some places, the poor state of water services poses a threat to public health, the accident rate 2.5 times higher than in Eastern Europe. Unreliability of water services has given rise to a general dissatisfaction on the part of the population.

Purification technology and potable water treatment includes its decontamination.

In modern conditions disinfection was almost the only mandatory process in a multistage water purification system of drinking water supply. Coagulation and filtration of water through the sand free it from suspended impurities and partially reduce its bacterial contamination. But only disinfection of water can be up to 98% clean water from pathogenic (disease-causing) microorganisms. Therefore, search and implementation of the most efficient ways of disinfecting water problems date change to the socially significant.

JSC "Rosvodokanal" offers its services to water utilities (water and sewer facilities) to address the problems of development and reconstruction of treatment facilities, particularly in the construction and operation of the disinfection of drinking vody.1.2 Organizational - economic characteristics of the firm.

1.2.1 Activities.

JSC "Rosvodokanal" - the successor trust "Rosvodokanalnaladka" long crossed traditional boundaries of its activities and in addition to start-up operations successfully carries out the functions of a general contractor.

In the recent past it was disunity project, contractors and subcontractors became inefficient use of capital. The responsibility is usually fell on the shoulders of the "Customer". Unfinished and poor quality - price of such relations.

JSC "Rosvodokanal" has developed a network of zonal enterprises, covering its activities throughout Russia.

The structure of JSC "Rosvodokanal"

Moscow Moscow enterprises

Ural Ufa company

North Caucasus enterprise in Rostov-on-Don

Northwest company in St. Petersburg

Far Eastern Khabarovsk company

Upper Volga Nizhny Novgorod company

Lower Volga Volgograd company

Siberian company Novosibirsk

Kazan Kazan subsidiary

TOO "stock" Pskov

All territorial units of JSC "Rosvodokanal" produce the following activities:

1. The functions of the general designer and general contractor in the reconstruction and development of water supply and sanitation, as well as their individual structures. (Ministry of Construction of the Russian Federation FLC license 00326 from 27.12.96g.)

2. Development of technical solutions in the reconstruction, expansion of systems and facilities for water and sanitation.

3. Adjustment of water treatment technology and wastewater existing and new structures.

4. Introduction of technologies, intensifying the work of water supply and sanitation.

5. Setting up electrical equipment and mechanistic existing and new facilities for water and sanitation.

6. Introduction of automated control systems and supervisory control on water supply and sanitation facilities.

7. Reconstruction of the chlorine industry.

8. Setting up disinfection by chlorination processes, ammoniation, etc.

9. Adjustment of water supply and distribution, transfer to the band scheme of water supply.

10. Statement of Accounting supply and consumption of water, staging works subscriber service based computers.

11. Restore the performance of hydrogeological (artesian) wells by gas-pulse treatment.

12. Construction of small systems, biological treatment and post-treatment of domestic sewage factory manufacturing capacity 10-1200 m3 / day.

13. Construction of USC for oily wastewater.

1.2.2 The property of the company.

a) means of transport:

UAZ 469 - 3 pcs.

Hoist - 2 pcs.

Welding transformers - 317 - 1 piece.

b) org. Equipment:

Personal computers: IBM PS AT 486 - 6 pcs.

IBM PS AT Pentium - 1 pc.

Photocopying: Sharp SF - 780 - 1 pc.

Printer: Apson - 1700 - 1 pc.

c) property rights:

- Property owned by individuals;

- The land is leased from the State Land Committee;

- The share of state and municipal property in the authorized capital is absent;

g) There are no shares and shares in other companies.

Services Company can be characterized with the release of the costs and including assessments of the impact of inflation and other factors, which are summarized in Table.

Table

Strengths Weaknesses

Highly qualified staff. Not provided soft loans.

Financial policy quickly adapt to current market conditions. Very rarely get an advance payment for services rendered.

Lack of working capital.

The lack of public funding.

High production costs.

1.2.3 The organizational structure of the firm.

Fig. 1 shows the current organizational structure of the firm.

Figure 1. The current organizational structure of JSC "Rosvodokanal."

The current organizational structure of the company "Rosvodokanal" allows us to represent the enlarged characteristic of units involved in the activities of the company, and to highlight their features. Strengths and weaknesses of the organization of management are presented in Table.

Table

Strengths Weaknesses

Head of the enterprise has a higher education. The absence of the marketing department.

The company's management has links with other companies in different regions of the country.

Debugged communications system

Deliberate policy guidance

Not unimportant aspect of the success of the company is the characteristic of marketing, business management as directed primarily to maximize profits, it will be possible when fully implemented and on time services (Table.).

Table

Strengths Weaknesses

Lack of enterprise priozvodyaschih similar services. The absence of a market analysis market research.

High quality of services. The lack of an advertising campaign.

A high level of competitiveness of services. Lack of state order for services produced.

Preservation of old customers for the services provided. The presence of failures in the implementation of services.

Debugged system of market research.

Know - how services (eg Chlorine in the selection of the optimal scheme of disinfection).

1.2.4 Analysis of scientific, technological and innovation potential of the company.

The staff of the Joint-Stock Company "Rosvodokanal" necessary for the development and implementation of all activities is presented in Table. .

Table

The number of company's offices 01.01.97goda.

Total units Managers Specialists servants may

Settlement Design 4 1 3 -

Management April 9 February 3rd

Technology 21 Apr. 17 -

Marketing 4 1 3 -

Outside units 2 - 2 -

TOTAL 40 10 March 27

Table

Strengths and weaknesses of the human resource aspects of the firm.

Strengths Weaknesses

Experienced and skilled composition of the firm. Lack of staff.

Attention and interest of the leaders of all the innovations in the field of personnel management.

Interest in the results of their work and save jobs.

Encourage employees initiative.

Leadership is committed to the fullest use of the knowledge, skills, abilities and skills of the personnel.

To analyze the performance of scientific - technical potential use data from Table. .

Table

The main technical - economic indicators for the calculation

Indicators 1996

The average annual cost of production assets (BPA), tr 2881728

Average number of employees (P), pers. 40

Number of Certified technicians (TPA), h. 22

The volume of services (P), thous. 2670921

Volume profile production (PP), ths. Rub. 1083000

The total number of structural subdivisions of the control (C), 2

The number of employees of the administrative apparatus (RA), 9 person

The amount of expenses for the maintenance of the control (B), ths. Rub. 419121

a) index fondovooruzhnnosti labor (F):

F = BPA / P = 72043.2 thousand rubles. / Person.

The growth rate = 109%

b) output of 1 ruble. BPA (P1):

P1 = P / BPA = 0.92 rub. / Rub.

The growth rate = 56%

c) the yield per 1 employee (P2):

P2 = P / P = 66,773.03 thousand. Rub.

The growth rate = 164%

g) the coefficient of specialization (CS):

COP = PS / P = 0.41

d) the cost of maintaining employees of the control (P1): P1 = Z / Ra = 46569 thousand. rub. / chel.1.3 Economic evaluation of the firm to implement innovative projects.

1.3.1 The balance of the company.

ASSET Otch. year, tr

I plant and equipment and other non-current assets

1. Intangible assets 16,657

2. Fixed assets 493 520

3. Long-term investments 90

Total for Section I 510 267

II inventory and costs

4. Inventories 100,172

5. IBE 3007

6. Finished goods 23,302

Total for section II 126481

III Cash

7. Accounts Receivable 1,185,196

8. Cash 332,796

Total for section III 1517992

BALANCE 2,154,740

LIABILITIES

IV Sources of own funds

1. The authorized capital 7640

2. Retained earnings from previous years 181,557

Total IV Section 189197

V Settlements and other liabilities

3. Long-term loans 6

4. Accounts Payable 1,338,541

5. Other current liabilities 626 996

Total for section V 1965543

BALANCE 2,154,740

1.3.2 Indicators of solvency and financial stability of the company.

Solvency indicators:

1.General coverage ratio K1 = 1 644 996 473/626 = 2.6

- Shows what part of current liabilities for loans and payments can be repaid by mobilizing all the necessary tools. (The optimal value K1? 2).

2.Koeffitsient liquidity: K2 = 1 517 992/1 965 537 = 0.7

- Shows what part of current liabilities for loans and calculation can be repaid by mobilizing current assets, except for goods - inventories. (Op. Value 0.2 - 0.7).

3.Koeffitsient absolute liquidity: K3 = 332 996 796/626 = 0.5

- The ability of the fastest repay short-term debt without any additional resources. (0.2 - 0.7)

Financial Soundness Indicators:

4.Koeffitsient autonomy: K4 = 189 197/2 154 740 = 0.08

- Shows the share of own funds in the total sources of funds at the disposal of the company (optimum value> 0.5).

5. Factor manevrinnosti: K5 = 1644 197 473/189 = 8.7

- The degree of mobility using their own funds.

6.Koeffitsient real value of property, tangible current assets in the property of the firm: K6 = 001/2 620 154 740 = 0.3

- Shows the proportion of the costs invested in the productive capacity of the company, in total aktivov.1.4 strategy of the firm and its implementation in the selection of projects.

1.4.1 Portfolio.

Water disinfection can be implemented with the help of various methods, which will be a portfolio of projects.

Project 1: Water disinfection with ultraviolet rays.

Bactericidal effect of ultraviolet rays due to their influence on the protoplasm and enzymes of microbial cells, causing their death. The greatest impact on bacteria are rays with wavelengths from 2000 to 2950A. In the process of dying bacteria under the action of bactericidal power is important degree of resistance to the action of the rays, which are different for different species. The effectiveness of this method depends on the number of filed bactericidal power availability from the slurry, the amount of microorganisms and their morphological and physiological characteristics and the optical density of the water, or its ability quencheth.

The source of ultraviolet mercury lamps are made of quartz glass or uviol. Lamps have a tube shape with a diameter of 15 - 20 cm oxide electrodes at both ends. Under the influence of an electric current mercury vapor give a bright greenish-white light, rich in ultraviolet rays.

Experience in operating systems for water disinfection bactericidal rays shows that this method provides reliable disinfection of water. Water, disarmed by this method does not change the physical or chemical properties. Operating costs for the disinfection of water exposure does not exceed the cost of chlorination. The disadvantages of this method of disinfection is the absence so far of operational control method for disinfecting effect, the lack of a method for disinfecting water, characterized by an increased mutnostyui hue, as well as the possibility of further water contamination.

Project 2: Ozonation of water.

Bactericidal effect of ozone is due to its high oxidation potential and ease its diffusion through the membrane kletosnye microbes. It oxidizes organic matter and microbial cell leads to its death. Water disinfection with ozone has several advantages:

1 - ozone improves the organoleptic properties of water and it does not contaminate further chemicals;

2 - ozonization does not require additional steps to remove excess water from the purified bactericide as chlorine in the dechlorination, it allows to use higher doses of ozone;

3 - ozone is produced on site; to obtain it only requires electricity from chemical reagents used only silica gel as a moisture absorbent (for air drying).

Widespread use of ozonation method prevents the difficulty of obtaining ozone associated with the expenditure of large amounts of electricity high frequency and high voltage. Ozone-air or ozone-oxygen mixtures containing more than 10% of the ozone explosive. Pure ozone explodes with great force from the most insignificant pulses. In addition, ozone is toxic: maximum permissible content in the indoor air, where there are people who composes 0.00001 mg / L. Ozone water treatment is complicated by its corrosive. Ozone destroys its aqueous solutions steel, iron, copper, and rubber vulcanite. Therefore, all elements of ozone plants and pipelines that transport its aqueous solutions should be made of stainless steel or aluminum. Under these conditions, the duration of service installations and pipelines made of steel of 15-20 years, and 5-7 years of aluminum.

Project 3: Chlorination of water.

The essence of the disinfecting action of chlorine is in redox processes occurring in the interaction of chlorine and its compounds with organic substances of microbial cells. Hypochlorous acid reacts with the bacteria and enzymes thus gives metabolism in a bacterial cell.

Along with the positive qualities of chlorination has significant drawbacks, the main ones are:

1 - chlorination spore-forming bacteria are not destroyed;

2 - If you work associated with chlorine dosing, requires constant laboratory monitoring of hloropoglaschaemosti water, residual chlorine in chlorinated water, especially in the most remote points of the water network, etc.

3 - Work hloratorschikov harmful to health and requires the special attention and care. Automate the process of chlorination is difficult;

4 - Keep derived from plants reagents must be in special warehouses. Deliver chlorine to places of consumption should be on a special transport under the supervision of trained staff. Cylinder from the liquid chlorine is necessary to timely return the plant - the supplier;

5 - when used to supply water wells very complicated scheme waterworks because of the required chlorine contact with water.

Project 4: Hlorammonizatsiya water.

As already said, the introduction of chlorine into the water causes it to specific odor and taste of chlorine. To combat these odors and flavors used ammoniation of water, ie, ammonia is introduced into the water before chlorine.

Ammonia is a colorless gas with a pungent odor, almost twice lighter than air; maximum allowable concentration in the air of industrial premises should not exceed 20 mg / m. Higher concentration is dangerous to human health.

When ammoniation chlorination process proceeds differently. When ammonia reacts with hypochlorous acid generated during water chlorination, chloramines are obtained, e.g.

or

Chloramines are changing the nature of the interaction of chlorine with phenol and chlorophenol prevent the formation of odors. At the same time, they are to some extent attenuate the bactericidal action of chlorine.

1.4.2 Selection of the project.

To select a project, you must first assess the compliance of the objectives of the projects of the company. It is necessary to prioritize and analyze the importance of each goal. For this purpose it is necessary to determine the significance of each objective, identify predominating since that is what will determine the development strategy of the enterprise. Determination of the significance of each target table gives

Table

Goals and their significance for the enterprise

Number Name Rank the importance of goals

1. Profitability 1

2. Growth Competitiveness 4

3. Hiring and training employees 6

4. Securing the image of the company 8

5. Improving the quality of products 5

6. The growth of the welfare of employees 16

7. Effectiveness of 3

8. The stability of the financial condition of 2

9. Increase the efficiency of management 11

10. Work with the client's solvency 9

11. The growing share of innovations 7

12. More efficient use of human resources 12

13. More efficient use of materials 13

14. Increase in the use of new technical means 14

15. The growth of interest in the results of its activities 15

16. Entering new markets 10

The proposed table shows the main goals of the enterprise:

- To maximize profits;

- The stability of the financial condition;

- The effectiveness of the enterprise;

- Increase the competitiveness of products;

- Improving the quality of the work.

Ways that contribute to achieve this goal are always a few. However, the main task of the company - the best path, ie, determine the strategy of the enterprise. The strategy of the company - a program of action that determines the development of the company (the set of possible outcomes and the sequence of activities) and the corresponding control. It defines the criteria for prioritization of ongoing projects is taken into account when calculating the cost of the project.

To determine the problem areas that could significantly affect the project, it is necessary to review and evaluate existing capacity and required by point scale. Thus constructed profiles when they overlap each other is an important argument in the decision on the project, your assessment of the implementation of an innovative project is presented in the table.

Table

Analysis of potential SEC

Indicators

1

2

3

4

5

Financial indicators

Budget size

Growth of the budget

Available funds

Financial stability

Staff

Strength

Personnel Qualification

Education Opportunity

Lack of staff turnover

Staffing

Equipment

Laboratory Equipment

The age structure of the equipment

Scientific and technical expertise

State of development

Scientific reserve

Implementation of a plan

The volume of new products for development

Increase in profits from the sale of new products

Scientific and technological information

Economic performance of the firm

Economic effect

Profit

Revenue

The effectiveness of organizational and technical measures for the application of new technology

Reproduction potential

Technical equipment workers

Technological advance

Level control

-profile existing capacity Science and Technology Center

- The profile of the required capacity Science and Technology Center

From the analysis of existing capacity and desired it is clear that the existing potential in many respects corresponds to the desired. However, the head of the company must pay attention to the state of scientific - technical information, particularly on the scientific - technical developments and take appropriate action.

To proceed directly to the selection of the project is necessary to generate a list of criteria for the analysis of firm innovation projects (see Table.).

Table

Composition criteria for analysis of innovative projects

Group Name criteria criteria relative importance criterion

Objectives, strategy, Relevance of the current PCT strategy 1.0

PHS Policy Does the organization potential project 0.9

Does the project time aspects 0.8

The project's consistency with respect to the risk of PHS 0.8

Whether the project meets N.-T. The potential of the organization 0.9

Is the project requirements of PHS to innovate 0.8

Market probability of commercial success of the project 0.8

Is the market demands 0.8

Estimation of the total capacity and market share 0.7

The probability of volume of sales 0.8

Conformity of the project available distribution channels 0.7

Compliance with the project existing pricing system 0.6

Time spent on the project market plan 0.7

Economic cost and development time of 0.6

Time for the project 0.6

Evaluation of start-up costs for the project 0.5

A cost estimate for the project 0.6

The profitability of the project 0.7

Availability of the necessary funds for the development and implementation of the project 0.6

Production

governmental presence of necessary capacities for the project 0.7

The need for additional capacity to implement the project 0.5

Production costs, taking into account the possible failure of the project

0.4

The need for additional equipment for the development and implementation of the project

0.3

The need for additional manpower for the project

0.3

Compliance with this organizational management structure 0.3

The need for additional employees for the project

0.3

The presence of an information base for the development of the project

0.2

Scientific and technical project success probability 0.7

The need for additional technical developers 0.3

Patentability Project 0.3

Given the nature of the firm for portfolio analysis and selection of projects for implementation allocated 9 criteria, combined into 4 groups. Accepted criteria rendered unequal importance (from 1.0 to 0.3)

Table

Project selection criteria

Group criteria

Name of test

Significance

1. The objectives of the company, the project 1. Compatibility with the current strategy of the company 1.0

2. Compliance with the policy strategy of the company with respect to the risk of 0.9

2. Market and 3. The probability of commercial success of the project 0.8

4. Does the commercial project market requirements 0.8

3. Economic 5. Time project 0.7

6. Profitability Project 0.7

7. The project cost 0.6

4.Proizvod-

governmental 8. The need for additional capacity of 0.4

9. Labor costs 0.3

Below are profiles of projects on established criteria based on expert assessments.

Table

Profile and expert evaluation of the project number 1

Name of test

Assessment

Value

Result

1. Compatibility of the project with the current strategy of the company

5

4

3

2

1

1.0

5.0

2. Compliance with respect to the company's risk

5

4

3

2

1

0.9

2.7

3. The probability of commercial success of the project

5

4

3

2

1

0.8

3.2

4. Does the project requirements of the market

5

4

3

2

1

0.8

2.4

5. Time project

5

4

3

2

1

0.7

0.7

6. The profitability of the project

5

4

3

2

1

0.7

2.1

7. The cost of the project

5

4

3

2

1

0.6

0.6

8. The need for additional capacity

5

4

3

2

1

0.4

0.8

9. Cost of labor

5

4

3

2

1

0.3

0.6

TOTAL

18.1

Table

Profile and expert evaluation of the project 2

Name of test

Assessment

Value

Result

1. Compatibility of the project with the current strategy of the company

5

4

3

2

1

1.0

4.0

2. Compliance with respect to the company's risk

5

4

3

2

1

0.9

1.8

3. The probability of commercial success of the project

5

4

3

2

1

0.8

3.2

4. Does the project requirements of the market

5

4

3

2

1

0.8

2.4

5. Time project

5

4

3

2

1

0.7

2.1

6. The profitability of the project

5

4

3

2

1

0.7

2.8

7. The cost of the project

5

4

3

2

1

0.6

1.8

8. The need for additional capacity

5

4

3

2

1

0.4

1.2

9. Cost of labor

5

4

3

2

1

0.3

1.2

TOTAL

20.5

Table

Profile and expert evaluation of the project number 3

Name of test

Assessment

Value

Result

1. Compatibility of the project with the current strategy of the company

5

4

3

2

1

1.0

3.0

2. Compliance with respect to the company's risk

5

4

3

2

1

0.9

3.6

3. The probability of commercial success of the project

5

4

3

2

1

0.8

2.4

4. Does the project requirements of the market

5

4

3

2

1

0.8

1.6

5. Time project

5

4

3

2

1

0.7

2.8

6. The profitability of the project

5

4

3

2

1

0.7

2.8

7. The cost of the project

5

4

3

2

1

0.6

1.8

8. The need for additional capacity

5

4

3

2

1

0.4

1.6

9. Cost of labor

5

4

3

2

1

0.3

0.9

TOTAL

20.5

Table

Profile and expert evaluation of the project number 4

Name of test

Assessment

Value

Result

1. Compatibility of the project with the current strategy of the company

5

4

3

2

1

1.0

4.0

2. Compliance with respect to the company's risk

5

4

3

2

1

0.9

3.6

3. The probability of commercial success of the project

5

4

3

2

1

0.8

3.2

4. Does the project requirements of the market

5

4

3

2

1

0.8

3.2

5. Time project

5

4

3

2

1

0.7

3.5

6. The profitability of the project

5

4

3

2

1

0.7

2.8

7. The cost of the project

5

4

3

2

1

0.6

3.0

8. The need for additional capacity

5

4

3

2

1

0.4

2.0

9. Cost of labor

5

4

3

2

1

0.3

1.2

TOTAL

26.5

Most preferred from the viewpoint of consideration of all criteria is 4 project. It looks better in terms of realization of the planned strategy for its implementation does not require additional production capacity. The time spent on this project will require a minimum, the cost of the project the least of all the proposed projects. Thus the fourth project meets the planned strategy of the company, its financial condition.

Section completes the financial characteristics of the sources of financing the project, which eventually will form its budget (Table.).

Table 15

Possible sources of funding

Articles budgeting Size budget line rubles The share of articles in the overall budget of the project,%

EQUITY

Targeted funding for the project from the "Rosvodokanal" 200 000 35.9

BORROWED FUNDS

Short-term bank loan 100 000 17.9

Equity participation in the project customers 257,000 46.2

TOTAL The total project budget 557 000 100.0

Comprehensive assessment of the company shows that the company is resistant to changes in the environment, the profitability of the company is high.

Business II - project plan.

2.1 Definition of the project (summary).

The crisis observed in our country and the factors that determine it: the decline in production, the system defaults, could not affect in the water industry. Almost everywhere deteriorated the quality of drinking water supplied to the water supply system of cities.

In modern conditions disinfection was almost the only mandatory process in a multistage water purification system of drinking water supply.

Drawbacks of all disinfection process, forced to look for better and more innovative methods of water purification. By such methods of disinfection of drinking water is hlorammonizatsiya.

The presence of residual chlorine in water, even in small amounts gives it an unpleasant odor. The faint smell of river water in the swamp or raw fish in the chlorination of water increases sharply and makes it very unpleasant to the taste. And in the presence of chlorinated water trace of phenol there are specific "pharmacy" smell. Odor of drinking water in the city water in the water is proposed to introduce ammonia.

In the process of disinfecting water with the use of ammonia using ammonia water, in view of the fact that pure ammonia is difficult to dose. In modern conditions are widely known are two ways to obtain ammonia water:

1 - immediate dilution ammonia water;

2 - use of an aqueous solution of ammonium sulfate;

Advantages of disinfecting water using ammonium sulfate is safety during transportation and storage, in contrast to the process where it is necessary to dissolve ammonia water directly. Ammonium sulfate is practically available materials, because is used in agriculture as fertilizer.

Nationwide, at a high level organized system of production, transportation and storage of ammonium sulfate (former system "Agrohimsnab").

It should also be noted that the chlorination with ammoniation conditions are more severe in order to prevent the development of bacterial life in water pipes, water mains, in particular of iron, causing overgrowth pipes.

The dose ratio between chlorine and ammonia depends on the quality of raw water. Typically, the optimal dose of ammonia, which provides the necessary education monochloramine, 5 - 6 times less than the dose of chlorine. Based on the fact that the cost of one bottle of chlorine is 5 mln. Rubles. per ton (to disinfect the water used in Moscow 60 tons of chlorine per year), it can be concluded on the efficiency of disinfection of water with ammonia. Since the cost of the dispenser of ammonia ranges from 10 to 15 ppm. Rub. (Depending on water consumption), and the ammonia and a half times less chlorine, the costs associated with the widespread introduction of disinfecting water using ammonia quickly pay off (see. Financial Plan).

Hlorammonizator not much different from the chlorinator, who received the highest rasporostranenie in wastewater treatment plants in the country (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2. Process hlorammonizatsii.

where: 1 - the container chlorine (gas); 2 - hloroprovod; 3 - compressor; 4 - mortar tank (tank); 5 - The storage container (tank); 6 - transfer pump solution of ammonia water from 4 to 5; 7 - Pump dispenser; 8 - penstock to the network of the city; 9 - pipeline ammonia water; 10 - water supply pipe and mortar consumable tanks.

Specifications:

1 - power supply - 380 V;

2 - operating temperature range - from -50 to +50

3 - warranty period - 1.5 years.

Currently, only JSC "Rosvodokanal" and its zonal companies have licensed the Ministry of Construction and the Russian Federation on Gosgortechnadzor comprehensive work on the construction and commissioning of such disinfection of water supply systems in Russia.

The company will develop an optimal scheme hlorammonizatsii and facility protection from accidents to local conditions with the maximum use of existing facilities and structures on the basis of modern technological oborudovaniyai microprocessor technology. Development are examined in the heart of "Chlorine" and consistent with local Gosgortechnadzor. "Technical solutions", developed by, minimize the detailed design stage and to be constructed on its own with a minimum of construction work.

With all the advantages of no company can compete in this market.

Fifty years of experience at the intersection of science and practice is a guarantee of high quality services offered.

2.2 Assessment of competition and markets.

JSC "Rosvodokanal" is the traditional monopoly and has a license for all types of proposed works, not a straightforward thereby domestic competitors.

Serious competition can make the American company "Fliht", providing services edentichnye as "Rosvodokanal" for the past seven years in North America. The company "Fliht" began to conquer the Russian market a year ago. On quality of service firms are in the same position.

To capture market share "Fliht" Selected methods of price competition, or more simply, offers its services to customers by 15% cheaper than "Rosvodokanal."

Guide "Rosvodokanal" found an alternative strategy of competition, namely - competition quality, but quality, understood in the broadest sense of the word.

In "Rosvodokanal" has two advantages. First, the firm provides faster design and survey works, construction of the facility, equipment and set-up than overseas competitors, who have to deliver everything you need for the job and the sea, having warehouses will be tied to the schedule of arrival of ships, which will increase costs, related to the risk of the project. Second, "Rosvodokanal" provides adjustment of equipment, given the specificity of aquaculture, water sources and dr.aspekty, and it provides warranty service, whereas "Fliht" develops standard designs decontamination systems.

Market for the proposed "Rosvodokanal" Service is the entire network of water - sewage farms (WSS) in Russia. Capacity of this market is high and demand will depend on the following factors:

- WSS interest in raising the quality characteristics of drinking water;

- Awareness of the benefits of services provided by "Rosvodokanal", ie from a successful advertising campaign;

As an additional market for the European market should be considered, in particular, the Italian market, with whose representatives held preliminary talks that have shown interest in their services firm.

2.3 Marketing Strategy.

In today's market conditions, when practically stopped state funding vodokanalnyh farms, management independently carries out a search for potential customers. Here it becomes obvious weak development of the necessary number of units in the first place, the marketing department with all its specialization.

The main focus should be on the analysis of marketing research in this field, as well as advertising directly provided services, and hence the enterprise.

Hence his advertising campaign is focused and puts its main goal suggestion of confidence in the company and, therefore, to be observed.

Advertise your company to be carried out through personal interviews, the head of "Rosvodokanal" with the directors of urban water channels, issue brochures, as well as at various conferences and exhibitions. While trying to emphasize that the company is always based on the customer's needs.

With this marketing strategy of the company, based on its experience and other enterprises, statistics, it can be noted that the chances of success of 70%, and the risk is negligible.

Making a profit with this strategy is achieved by improving the quality of services, increasing the number of customers, both domestic and foreign firms, ie access to new markets.

The price of services is established based on the standards established by the State (the State Construction Committee pricelist of 1984), which sets out the methodology of price formation. However, the following principles are taken into account:

1. The price must cover all costs.

2. The price must be high enough due to the singularity and uniqueness of services, but may contain certain benefits.

Based on the foregoing, the company builds its pricing, pursuing a policy of the prestigious prices, given the desire of customers to high quality services. In this case, the firm strives to achieve the highest level of profit, aim to maximize successful for themselves the situation on the market (no domestic competitors, increasing demand for services provided). This was inspired by the need to interest payments for the loan of the bank.

Firm "Rosvodokanal" works to order and therefore the performance of all types of services provided in accordance with the existing portfolio of orders, contracts and preliminary agreements. In this case, the terms negotiated in advance of work performed, specifications, costs and prices. Compliance with contractual discipline and mutual agreements is to ensure that the firm undertakes to produce and put into operation a system of decontamination of drinking water, and the customer must pay for work performed within a specified time.

Assessment of the costs, which will require the implementation of the project will be made in the financial plan.

2.4 The plan of construction and commissioning.

At present, the company "Rosvodokanal" is at an early stage of its development, which is associated with the decision on financing its activities, an independent search for potential customers and the development of the target market segment. The situation is extremely complicated state of the economy in the country.

For this project the company is ready to take on the "chief designer" and "General Contractor", and use all types of movable property and nezhvizhimogo.

Due to the nature of services the firm itself will develop for any aquaculture optimal scheme of chlorination and facility protection against accidents in relation to local conditions with the maximum use of existing facilities and structures on the basis of modern technological equipment and microprocessor technology.

With regard to the implementation of the project, it includes the following steps:

- Design - survey works;

- Binding design documentation to the manufacturing process;

- Calculation of the cost of construction work;

- Development of technical documentation;

- Provision of construction raw materials, components, etc .;

- Purchase of technical equipment, its installation and adjustment;

- Training of personnel to work with the new system of disinfection of drinking water;

- Organization of monitoring the progress of construction and commissioning decontamination system.

Upon completion of construction and commissioning of the equipment the company produces system startup and provides warranty service within 1.5 years.

The costs of the project are presented in Table 16.

Table 16

Costs of construction and commissioning of the system disinfection

Firm "Rosvodokanal"

Costs:

1997. (Quarterly)

ths

1998. (Six months.)

ths

1 2 3 4 I II

Production and sales including

Electricity 1500 1500 1500 1500 5400 5400

materials 54855 54855 54855 54855 1112810 1112817

amortization of PF 2380 2380 2390 2390 4930 4930

shipping costs 4480 4480 4490 4490 32450 32450

pay 25600 25600 25650 25650 81140 81140

deductions for sots.ctrahovanie 10245 10245 10257 10257 36624 36624

advertising costs 1125 1125 1125 1125 750 750

travel costs 6000 6000 6000 6000 4270 4270

rent 11837 11837 11837 11837 11837 11837

The production costs are not constant. The maximum value of the cost falls on the end of the fourth quarter of the first year and early next year of the project. Since the beginning stage of construction and commissioning of the equipment.

After system start-up costs fall sharply, as will be used only to purchase reagents (chlorine and ammonia) and preventive maintenance.

2.5 Organizational - legal plan.

"Rosvodokanal" is a closed joint stock company with registered capital of $ 7,640 thousand. and operates on the basis of the Civil Code. JSC is a legal entity and operates on the basis of the Constitution and the Memorandum, has its own property, independent balance and current account.

For all kinds offered in this prekte works and services are appropriate licenses:

- Gosgortechnadzor Russian Federation for design work: the development of technological and regulatory - technical documentation related to ensuring the safe operation of plants, facilities and equipment, technical solutions, technical - economic feasibility studies, technical regulations, technical and technological standards for disinfection of drinking water and wastewater number 11 P-2000/2947 of 10.06.95 years.

- Gosgortechnadzor the Russian Federation on the installation and commissioning of number 11 M 2000/2948 of 19/06/95 years.

- Ministry of Construction of the Russian Federation for construction activities (the design works, construction - installation works, engineering services) FTSL number 003326 from 12.27.96 year.

- License (letter) of the State Committee of the Russian Federation for Environmental Protection 23.04 '97 22-3 / 249. Design: Environmental Protection.

To carry out all the work for the project, from the experts there is a group of 14 people with the following organizational structure (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3 The organizational structure of the project team

Project Manager - the person directly supervising the implementation of the project.

The project team is developing a theoretical justification of the project (feasibility study), and also forms a complex Documentation Project.

The production team installs equipment performs construction and installation work, commissioning and start-up.

2.6 Economic risk and insurance.

Each new project is faced with certain difficulties that threaten its existence and conduct. It should be noted moments associated with the risk of the project, as well as to clarify the events that reduce risk and loss.

The risk associated with the project can be divided into the following groups:

1. Investment risk (associated with the construction process):

- Increase the construction period against the settlement on organizational and technical reasons;

- Increased costs against planned;

2. Special risks (associated with the normal functioning of the disinfecting system):

- Power outages, agent, etc .;

- Failures in the maintenance service;

3. The overall risk:

- Natural (fire, etc.);

- Robbery;

- Political (change zakonozatelstva, design standards, and others.).

For the above types of risk is necessary to determine the degree of risk, the probability (tab. 17), as well as measures to prevent risks.

Table 17

Types of risk

Degree of risk

ths

Probability of risk

Ekonomicheskiyrisk

ths

Investment risk 0.5 270700 135350

Special risk 0.3 51183 170610

The overall risk of 0.2 45120 9024

In connection with the above potential risks Management of "Rosvodokanal" taken a number of measures to minimize the risks:

- If necessary additional funding, negotiated the terms of the loan by the bank "Capital", which has a strong financial position;

- All dates are calculated with the stock;

- Utilities are duplicated many times that svodet to minimize the probability of power cuts;

- Main agent - ammonium sulfate, which is practically available materials, because it is used in agriculture as a fertilizer, hence the probability of small interruptions;

- Enhanced measures will be taken for fire safety (installation of signaling facilities, organization of services hired protection and others.);

- Experienced lawyers constantly monitor changes in legislation;

- Global political changes are unlikely;

- The property is insured.

2.8 Funding and financial anthers.

To determine the amount of funds required for the project, you must make a few tables that clearly will be presented to their distribution.

The main source of income of the enterprise is the firm's profit. Therefore, the financial plan should start with a balance of income and expenses (tab. 18), which should answer the question: Will the additional funding.

Table 18

The balance of income and expenditure for the construction and commissioning of decontamination systems

1998.

1999. (Six months)

2000. (Six months)

Contents I II I II

Revenue - 188561 199761 212546 254545

Expenses in Vol. H.

Standing

variables

282858

185475

97383

111692

92737

18955

110872

92737

18135

108414

92737

15677

108414

92737

15677

Balance (excess (+), the lack of (-) in cash Wed-in.) - 76869 104132 88889 104132

After analyzing the table, we can conclude that the money spent on the project in the first two years of its implementation will pay off immediately after entering the decontamination system in operation, which ensures a quick calculation on loans with the bank. As for the net profit from the sale of this project, the calculations presented in the following Table 19.

Table 19

The balance of income and expenses for the construction and commissioning of decontamination systems

Table Of Contents

1998.

1999. (Six months)

2000. (Six months)

Income - 188561 199761 212546 212546

Production costs 282858 111692 110872 108414 108414

The balance sheet profit - 76869 88889 104132 104132

Tax deductions 37325 30747 35555 41652 41652

Net profit - 37325 46122 53334 62480 62480

Of the proposed table shows that the project will bring profit already since the launch of the new system into operation. The following year operating costs decrease, and net income will increase accordingly. In the future, it may increase or remain at this level or increase with an increase in water consumption in the urban network.

The payback period is determined by counting the number of years during which the costs will be repaid at the expense of earned income. Since the funds do not come evenly, then the payback period equal to the period of time for which the total net cash flows will exceed the value of the investment project. The amount of investment in the project amounts to 200,000 rubles. This investment in the installation and commissioning of the equipment.

Based on the calculations of the payback period of the proposed project will be 2 goda.V s Introductory

In modern conditions disinfection was almost the only mandatory process in a multistage water purification system of drinking water supply.

Drawbacks of all disinfection process, forced to look for better and more innovative methods of water purification. By such methods of disinfection of drinking water is hlorammonizatsiya.

Due to the nature of services the firm itself will develop for any aquaculture optimal scheme of chlorination and facility protection against accidents in relation to local conditions with the maximum use of existing facilities and structures on the basis of modern technological equipment and microprocessor technology.

This project is designed for 2years, concerns the construction and commissioning of disinfecting drinking water supply system for urban water channels.

To implement the project needed cash investments in the amount of 557 million rubles. Calculations made in this feasibility study, suggest that the JSC "Rosvodokanal", carrying out the project in the first two years of operation of the system not only pay for the initial costs, but also to pay off the bank loan interest.

III Construction and calculation of network project schedule

To construct a network graph, it is necessary to determine the composition and sequence of work and assess their duration. Network diagrams constructed on the basis of the objectives tree. To determine the composition of works of the project "Construction and commissioning hlorammonnyh decontamination systems" need to implement the following activities:

A - design - survey works;

B - tie design documentation to the manufacturing process;

B - calculate the cost of construction work;

D - Develop technical documentation;

D - to provide construction raw materials, components, etc .;

E - to purchase technological equipment to produce its installation and adjustment;

F - to train the staff working with the new system of disinfection of drinking water;

W - organize control over the construction and commissioning of disinfecting system.

Fig. 4 Topology of the network graph.

Formed on the basis of the network model, including the composition and sequence of work and knowing their duration (tij), you can make calculations following parameters of the network schedule (tab. 20):

- Early Nechayev performance (Trn);

- Early end performance (TPO);

- Later than the beginning of the job (ESRD);

- Later than the end of the job (TPO);

- Work full reserve (Rij);

- The private reserve of the first kind (r1ij);

- The private reserve of the second kind (r 2ij);

Table 20

tij Trn Tro ESRD TPO Rij r 1ij r 2ij

4 0 4 0 4 0 0 0

0 4 4 7 7 3 3 0

4 4 8 4 8 0 0 0

8 4 12 4 12 0 0 0

0 4 4 8 8 4 1 4

5 4 9 7 12 3 0 0

4 8 12 8 12 0 0 0

8 8 16 8 16 0 0 0

4 12 16 12 16 0 0 0

7 16 23 16 23 0 0 0

With P & S About K L and T E R A T U R S

1. Frolova NA, Liapina SY Methodical instructions to the course of the project: "Development of the business - plan of the innovative project."

2. Pelikh A. Business - plan or how to organize your own business.

3. VP Burov, Moroshkin VA Novikov, DC Method of business - plan.

4. Voznaya NF Water chemistry and microbiology.

5. Abramov NN Water.


  












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